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science facts

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  • At night however, without an atmosphere to hold the heat in, the temperatures plummet, dropping to -180 Degrees Celsius.

  • Mercury has a very low surface gravity.
  • Mercury has no atmosphere which means there is no wind or weather to speak of.

  • There is also no water on the surface of Mercury, it is possible however that there could be water underneath the surface.

  • Likewise, there is no air on the surface but it could be trapped underneath.
  • Mars is nicknamed the red planet because it is covered with rust-like dust. Even the atmosphere is a pinkish red, colored by tiny particles of dust thrown up from the surface.
Mars experiences violent dust storms which continually change its surface
  • Mars has many massive volcanoes and is home to Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system, it stands 21km high and is 600km across the base.

  • Mars has a very thin atmosphere made mostly of carbon dioxide. It is not thick enough to trap the sun's heat like Venus, so the planet is very cold. Temperatures range from -120 Degrees Celsius on winter nights to 25 Degrees Celsius in the summer.
  • Mars has many channels, plains and canyons on the surface which could have been caused by water erosion in the past.

  • Mars has very weak gravity which cannot hold onto the atmosphere well.

  • The polar ice caps consist of frozen Co2 (dry ice) which lies over a layer of ice.
  • The atmosphere of Venus made up mainly of carbon dioxide.​

  • Its size is slightly smaller than Earth.
  • It also features gravity similar to that of Earth.

  • Venus is surrounded by clouds consisting of mercury, ferric chloride hydrocarbons and sulphuric acid. These clouds create the most corrosive acid rain found anywhere in our solar system.
  • The clouds are so thick that little light even reaches the surface. The light that does reach the surface is converted to heat and can not escape the atmosphere making Venus the hottest planet at around 500 Degrees Celsius.

  • The surface of Venus is often described as a "stormy desert" full of many craters and very active volcanoes.
he surface is also likened to molten lead.
  • Venus features no liquid water.
  • Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system and is another gas giant.​

  • Saturn has a small rocky core covered with liquid gas.
  • It is surrounded by a system of rings that stretch out into space for thousands of kilometres.
  • The rings are made up of millions of ice crystals, some as big as houses and others as small as specks of dust.
  • Saturn is very light as it is made up of more hydrogen than helium so it is less dense. If we could fit Saturn into a bathtub it would float (but that would have to be one big bathtub!)
  • Like Jupiter, Saturn has many moons which surround it.
  • Saturn is not a peaceful planet. Storm winds race around the atmosphere at 800kmp/h.
  • Saturn has a very strong magnetic field which traps energy particles resulting in high levels of radiation.
  • Volcanoes are openings in the Earth’s surface. When they are active they can let ash, gas and hot magma escape in sometimes violent and spectacular eruptions.​
  • The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.
  • Volcanoes are usually located where tectonic plates meet. This is especially true for the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area around the Pacific Ocean where over 75% of the volcanoes on Earth are found.​
  • While most volcanoes form near tectonic boundaries, they can also form in areas that contain abnormally hot rock inside the Earth. Known as mantle plumes, these hotspots are found at a number of locations around the globe with the most notable being in Hawaii.
  • Hot liquid rock under the Earth’s surface is known as magma, it is called lava after it comes out of a volcano.​
  • Some famous volcanic eruptions of modern times include Mount Krakatoa in 1883, Novarupta in 1912, Mount St Helens in 1980 and Mt Pinatubo in 1991.​
  • While we certainly have some big volcanoes here on Earth, the biggest known volcano in our solar system is actually on Mars. Its name is Olympus Mons and it measures a whooping 600km (373 miles) wide and 21km (13 miles) high.
  • measures a whooping 600km (373 miles) wide and 21km (13 miles) high.​
  • The object with the most volcanic activity in our solar system is Io, one of Jupiter’s moons. Covered in volcanoes, its surface is constantly changing to the large amount of volcanic activity.​
  • Most people think of volcanoes as large cone shaped mountains but that is just one type, others feature wide plateaus, fissure vents (cracks were lava emerges) and bulging dome shapes.
  • There are also volcanoes found on the ocean floor and even under icecaps, such as those found in Iceland.​
  • Volcanoes can be active (regular activity), dormant (recent historical activity but now quiet) or extinct (no activity in historical times and unlikely to erupt again). While these terms are useful, scientists are more likely to describe volcanoes by characteristics such a how they formed, how they erupt and what their shape is.​
  • Common volcanic gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen sulfide.
  • Volcanic eruptions can send ash high into the air, over 30km (17 miles) above the Earth’s surface.​
  • Large volcanic eruptions can reflect radiation from the Sun and drop average temperatures on Earth by around half a degree. There have been several examples of this over the last century.​
  • Pumice is a unique volcanic rock (igneous) that can float in water. It can also be used as an abrasive and is sometimes used in beauty salons for removing dry skin.
Mr. Alwan,
I have serious question with the thread title.
Science is facts and hypothesis.
What is not-fact cannot be science.
Concepts like clean coal, perpetual motion machine, or earth is flat can not fact or science.

So the title need to only say facts.
Just a suggestion.
Thanks for your suggestion.
Facts could be in any field,area. For example 'Historical/History facts,sports facts etc.
So to be specific the field/area I have taken the name science facts.
Hope I have made things clear.

Mr. Alwan,
I have serious question with the thread title.
Science is facts and hypothesis.
What is not-fact cannot be science.
Concepts like clean coal, perpetual motion machine, or earth is flat can not fact or science.

So the title need to only say facts.
Just a suggestion.
  • Jupiter is the largest planet in our Solar system. It is so big that more than 1300 Earth's could fit inside it.​

  • Thick, colorful clouds of deadly poisonous gases surround Jupiter. The quick spinning of the planet whips up the atmosphere, creating the bands around the planet.
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