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Visit to Gokarnam

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RVR

Well-known member
Please see the following link to visit to Gokarna

Gokarna travel guide - Wikitravel

From Chennai, you can go by direct train to Mangalore and then you can change over from there to another train or cab or bus. Udipi, Kollur (Mookambika), Gokarna etc are in the same direction from Mangalaore to Goa and you can visit all these places.

With some deviation, you can visit, Sringeri, Dharmastala, Subramanya etc.

Probably you can organise a group of say 15 or so, go upto Mangalore by train and then take a maxi cab (Mahindra van or Tempo traveller etc) from Mangalore. Within 3 or 4 days you can cover all these places and return to Mangalore.

When I visited long back, the Vaadhyar at Gokarna suggested doing Pithur Tharppanam at Gokarna. Since you are more knowledgeable than me, please decide yourself.

All the best
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
Some one suggested me to go to Bangalore by Morning 6.15 train, go to gokarna by bus so that you can see many mountains. Are you aware of bus timings that leaves around 11.00 A.M. Or shall we go to Mysore and go to Gokarna
 

RVR

Well-known member
Some one suggested me to go to Bangalore by Morning 6.15 train, go to gokarna by bus so that you can see many mountains. Are you aware of bus timings that leaves around 11.00 A.M. Or shall we go to Mysore and go to Gokarna

Please check at the following address

K.S.R.T.C. Bus Service
Place page
New No. 3, Old No. 48-B, South West Boag Road, T.Nagar
Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600017
09840144088

::K.S.R.T.C::

Weblink is not working

If weblink works, you can do online reservation also

All the best
 

DURGADASAN

Active member
Dear all

There is a Kokarnam in our Tamilnadu itself, which is located in the Pudukottai. The temple is very famous for its, "Gokarna theertham" which is equally important to that of ganges. The temple is very scenic as it has been built over a rock. A very nice temple to see.

Pranams
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
On several occasions we beat a cow knowingly or unknowingly or just beat them with a stick to chase away from our field which may have an iron nib that causes injury or bleeding injury that creates lots of pain in the cow.

This Earth belongs to Animals and Plants and we are aliens in the earth and encroaching the earth that actually belongs to them. The cow at times never curses but silently weeps. This cry affects our vibration and we never understands that and thinks some unwanted creation is affecting our steps on improvements and blocks the way of success.

Yes, we made the mistake of beating a cow which affected them badly. Now we take a vow not to do it again but what is the prayachchith for the mistake we committed already?

The Cow and bull are said to be bearers of the light of all planet in to earth. This already mentioned in Vedas as the bearer of light of the Sun to the Earth through Seven Horses and this Nandhi sitting before the Garbhagraha of the Siva Temple collects the Rays from Sivalinga and again sending them to Flag Post which goes to the North Pole and to the Universe.

Based on this theory I arrived at a solution.

To satisfy Soorya Dev, you could offer--coarse cloth to the underprivileged on a Sunday, or --feed wheat to deer on several Sundays
This sort of approach can be followed for any Planet and can be extended to the practice of immersing the metals sacred to the Planets in a flowing water, or burying them in the earth on the Planet's weekday. This type of donation gives back to nature that it gave us and is useful as an act of non-attachment - particularly when you think of dropping real gold into a river to propitiate Brihaspati. One remedy for Soorya could thus be to offer copper either to a powerful person or into flowing water on a Sunday.(Or if you are rich enough sponsor a Gopura Kalasa for a Temple.)

There are some variants occur in the creatures or offerings listed in the For example, "cow" is listed under Shukra (Venus), but is often used for Soorya Dev (Sun) as well. The Lal Kitab advises one to offer wheat or jaggery to a cow on Sundays to remedy afflictions of the Sun.
(http://pecarry.yourfreehosting.net/bhagvatjee/shani/2-remedies-20-29/21-remedies-2.htm)
Shradha for Cows and Bulls is called Vrushotsarga - Where one Bull and a Cow will be worshiped and they will be let out freely. One Homa will be performed. This is for moksha and Forefathers. For which you have to seek the direction of a Purohit.

The Fees will be -around Rs 8,000 for cow and cost of performing homa will be Rs 10,000, apart from this you are to sponsor for Anna Dhana.

This is done at only one place called Gokarna.


The email Id of the Temple is

[email protected]

Phone Nos 08386257981
Cell No 09449258114 and 09449595218
 
dear all

last april, four of us went on a pilgrimage to south karnataka temples - by car. though we did not perform any rituals, we had good darshan in all the temples. all the temples provide free lunch to devotees. if any one wants to perform any rituals, prohits are there to help you. for whatever it is worth, i am giving below the programme which we followed. this may be useful to those who wish to visit the temples irrespective of thier mode of transport.

DateDepartureOp. ReadingArrivalCl. ReadingDistanceRemarks 07-04-2010Bangalore29379Belur29600221To go to Halebedu turn right before reach Belur and return (80kms) 07-04-2010Belur29600Horanadu29716116Goddess Annapoorani 07-04-2010Horanadu29716Sringeri2979074Goddess Saradambal/Sankara Mutt Night halt at Sringeri 08-04-2010Sringeri29790Kollur29903113Mookambigai 08-04-2010Kollur29903Gokarna30043140Shiva Temple/Atma Lingam/Ganapathy 08-04-2010Gokarna30043Murudeshwar3012582Shiva/Manjunatha - Night halt at Murudeshwar 09-04-2010Murudeshwar30125Anegudde3020277Ganapathy 09-04-2010Anegudde30202Udupi3023331Sri Krishna/Ananthapadmanabhan 09-04-2010Udupi30233Mangalore3030168 09-04-2010Mangalore Kateel 30Durga Parameswari 09-04-2010Kateel Kadri 35Manjunatha 09-04-2010Kadri Mangalore 10Mangala Devi - Night Halt 10-04-2010Mangalore30301Dharmasthala3037776Manjunathar/Museum/Vintage Car Exhibition 10-04-2010Dharmasthala30377Kukke Subramanya3044063Subramanya/Naga Devatha 10-04-2010Kukke Subramanya30440Bangalore30742302 total kms covered 1438

with warm regards

narayananms
 
i am very sorry the spreadsheet which i copied was not done properly. i shall try to attach the spreadsheet which will readable.

narayananms
 

Dr.T.N.Jambunathan

Active member
Dear Durgadasan

I think you are referring to திருகோக்கர்ணம் a suburb of Pudukkotai.(ப்ரஹதாம்பாள் அம்மன் ) Right ?:noidea:
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
It is in Karnataka. I plan to visit on 5th stay there till 9th, so that attend Sani Pradosham, Masa Siva rathri, perform Adi Amavasai Tharpanam. Plan to donate for Anna Dhana.
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
I completed my trip to Gokarna. I booked the ticket through Redbus in Bangalore. But the journey was terrible. The redbus.co.in promises safe journey and drop. But in reality, it stopped 15 Kms away from temple. Even though the ticket was booked 20 days in advance, they care less but prefer to load parcels. You can say it is a Parcel service rather than Passenger service. It starts from Bangalore at 18.30., but with in Bangalore stopped for an hour for loading parcels. On the way it stopped in a third grade hotel at 22 Hrs., which was having N.V. and tea and coffee are more costly here. In the bus, it is sleeper but when you lie down, the bowels (Kudal) comes to your mouth resulting in vomiting sensation. So for elders it is not advisable to take a sleeper bus. Next day, we were forced by the Seabird Bus to get down at bypass road, which is 15 kms away from Gokarna Village! It was drizzling and we hired an auto to reach the lodge. We paid Rs150/=(That too a local man helped)

After reaching the lodge, we had our bath etc., and went to Temple. There we met the Manager, who sent us to the Prohit to speak on the rituals to be performed. Here we must bargain so that it suits your purse.

In the after noon we had our lunch at temple. The meals is served in steel plates! You can find no achchara here!!

Next day we performed the Vrushotsarga, which lasted for 3 hrs. and had our lunch at the prohit's house.

In the evening we went to local places like Om beach and other beaches.

Next day we went to Gangamma river and Om beach which cost us Rs350.

In the after noon we had lunch out side. The side dishes here has lots of Soombhu.

The temple they chant Rudram all through the day. Here any one can touch the Moolavar Saligram.

The temple gopuram is made with copper but that of a design that will be actually under/ base of the flag post.and with Moghul style.

The Flag post is made with a single stone on top there is a Nandhi in sitting pose.

There is Parvathi sannathi., dathathreya and Chandikeswarar. But Chandikeswarar is a linga.

At 8.00 PM daily, there is a pooja called SALAM pooja in honour of Tippu sultan, who donated lands to the temple.

My suggestion to any one visiting this village, avoid taking food in the temple. Try to move fast from the village as you could. It is best two days are enough that too if you have a Prayachchiththaa to do.
 

kunjuppu

Well-known member
ramac,

thank you for your honest post.

i have found that when one piligrimages in india, especially outside of tamil nadu or kerala, one must have very strong faith. and money, if possible.

the strong faith is needed, to ignore the corruption, what we consider aacharam or personal cleanliness (to me as i am no aacharamist) and above all disorganization.

the money is useful: i suggest people rent cars from the nearest place where they are comfortably lodged to their satisfaction - come in the car, do your pooja business & go back. don't meander around to take in the local sites, many of which may be disturbing to the mind.


thanks again.

I completed my trip to Gokarna. I booked the ticket through Redbus in Bangalore. But the journey was terrible. The redbus.co.in promises safe journey and drop. But in reality, it stopped 15 Kms away from temple. Even though the ticket was booked 20 days in advance, they care less but prefer to load parcels. You can say it is a Parcel service rather than Passenger service. It starts from Bangalore at 18.30., but with in Bangalore stopped for an hour for loading parcels. On the way it stopped in a third grade hotel at 22 Hrs., which was having N.V. and tea and coffee are more costly here. In the bus, it is sleeper but when you lie down, the bowels (Kudal) comes to your mouth resulting in vomiting sensation. So for elders it is not advisable to take a sleeper bus. Next day, we were forced by the Seabird Bus to get down at bypass road, which is 15 kms away from Gokarna Village! It was drizzling and we hired an auto to reach the lodge. We paid Rs150/=(That too a local man helped)

After reaching the lodge, we had our bath etc., and went to Temple. There we met the Manager, who sent us to the Prohit to speak on the rituals to be performed. Here we must bargain so that it suits your purse.

In the after noon we had our lunch at temple. The meals is served in steel plates! You can find no achchara here!!

Next day we performed the Vrushotsarga, which lasted for 3 hrs. and had our lunch at the prohit's house.

In the evening we went to local places like Om beach and other beaches.

Next day we went to Gangamma river and Om beach which cost us Rs350.

In the after noon we had lunch out side. The side dishes here has lots of Soombhu.

The temple they chant Rudram all through the day. Here any one can touch the Moolavar Saligram.

The temple gopuram is made with copper but that of a design that will be actually under/ base of the flag post.and with Moghul style.

The Flag post is made with a single stone on top there is a Nandhi in sitting pose.

There is Parvathi sannathi., dathathreya and Chandikeswarar. But Chandikeswarar is a linga.

At 8.00 PM daily, there is a pooja called SALAM pooja in honour of Tippu sultan, who donated lands to the temple.

My suggestion to any one visiting this village, avoid taking food in the temple. Try to move fast from the village as you could. It is best two days are enough that too if you have a Prayachchiththaa to do.
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
When I take up the matter about dropping me at 15 Kms away from Gokarna Temple, The redbus justified that Gokarna starts there. It is a by pass road. Now if we book a ticket to Chennai thro redbus they will drop us at Tambaram and this side at Poonamalee stating that Chennai starts from there. Please beware of these travel agents., and try to travel in Government buses that will help you a lot.
 

RVR

Well-known member
Sri Ramacchandran sir,

Almost two decades back I visited Gokarna. We took a van and went to the temple in the evening. Proper hotel accommodation was not available and we were forced to stay back in the night and returned only in the morning.

If I am correct, Sundara Moorthi Nayanar has composed Thevaram on Gokarna.

It is a nice place to visit. It is better reach Mangalore by Train and took a cab or van and visit Udipi, Mookambiga (Kollur), Gokarna, Dharmasthala, Subramanya and Sringeri. Staying is good at Dharmasthala and Sringeri and probably at Udipi also.

All the best
 

shanraju

Member
Dear Dr.T N Jambunathan, Thirukogarnam Bragadhambal is also called "araikaasu amman". If anything is lost, or misplaced , if we pray to this Ambal, we will definitely get back those. After that, we can give a small amount of Re.1/- or Re.5/- as kaanikkai to Her, and offer her Paanagam. I personally have experienced this, on several occasions. Bragathambal - azhagai kaana kann kodi vendum. I hope, you will agree with me. She is our family's ishta deivam.
 

kunjuppu

Well-known member
shan,

i feel very uncomfortable reading this. why should we put the onus on God for our failings. particularly material ones.

if on occassion, you did not find your lost kaasu, will you blame the Ambal? i think it is best to pray to God for the sake of prayer, peace of mind and goodness of heart. Not to expect material rewards.

Dear Dr.T N Jambunathan, Thirukogarnam Bragadhambal is also called "araikaasu amman". If anything is lost, or misplaced , if we pray to this Ambal, we will definitely get back those. After that, we can give a small amount of Re.1/- or Re.5/- as kaanikkai to Her, and offer her Paanagam. I personally have experienced this, on several occasions. Bragathambal - azhagai kaana kann kodi vendum. I hope, you will agree with me. She is our family's ishta deivam.
 

shanraju

Member
shan,

i feel very uncomfortable reading this. why should we put the onus on God for our failings. particularly material ones.

if on occassion, you did not find your lost kaasu, will you blame the Ambal? i think it is best to pray to God for the sake of prayer, peace of mind and goodness of heart. Not to expect material rewards.

Dear Kunjuppu,

Our souls are a part of the Paramatma. But unfortunately we sought material comforts and the Paramatma was so kind enough that he created this world for us and said to us - 'go and enjoy material comforts and you can come back to me when you want'. So our primary goal in life is to go back to our supreme father - the paramatma.

When we take education as a system, there is curriculum for every level. This is because, in order to attain the highest level, one has to be taken through all the basic steps. Its the same for attaining the lotus feet of the lord. Every soul is at a different level of understanding his powers and grace. So everyone need to be taken though a different 'curriculum' to reach the almighty in the end !

Coming to my previous post, I have stated a custom that has been practised by many. The basis of such practices, when we see without our rosy glasses, is to bring/strengthen faith and belief - this is a part of the curriculum in the school of religion. 'Mullai mullal edukka vendum' . On a similar note, if it takes material possessions to sow the seed of Bhakti in all souls, so be it. This has been the way of our forefathers, and we who have originated from them, definitely know less than what they believed about.

If we try to understand the school of religion, and the ultimate goal of every soul, I am sure knowing about such practices will not cause discomfort. So I kindly request you to leave this for those who experience the power of Ambal and thereby take them a step closer to her lotus feet.
 

pannvalan

Well-known member
Durgadasan,

I have visited the Thirugokarnam temple, near Pudukottai. The temple is very good and its architectural splendour and sculptural wealth are really worth seeing and enjoying. If anyone happens to visit this temple, forget not to see the hexagon shaped pond (theertham), but since abandoned.
 

B.Krishnamurthy

Active member
Some one advised me(I do not remember that person now) long time back
to utter the following " I will marry you" when some personal things are lost or misplaced.I have been following the advice faithfully whenever the occasion demanded and I could get back the item within a reasonable time.
This is with reference to post no 16 in this thread.
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
[FONT=&quot]In Olden days the South India was called Dakshina patha and North India was called Uththara patha.

According to some Hindu legends, Parasurama shot his arrow into the sea and commanded the Sea God to recede up to the point where his arrow landed. The new piece of land thus recovered came to be known as Konkan meaning "piece of earth" or "corner of earth" (Kona(corner) + kana(piece)).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Map_of_the_Periplus_of_the_Erythraean_Sea.jpg


This Gokarna finds a place in the book of Claudius Ptolemaeus, (Ptolemy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) and Periplus (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) who belongs to first century A.D. visited these coastal area and mentions about the ports through which cloths were exported.These two ports are mentioned in Mahaaniddesa (A Buddist Book) in B.C.250.

Periplus mentions about a port Angidii which may be Angadi which lies 7 kms from present Gokarna. This place was called Malai Nadu as the coastal areas were protected by mountains and Claudius Ptolemaeus quotes that they can enter the coast with guide.

This area was ruled by Mauriya Emperor in B.C.3rd BCE.

In the Sathavahana Empire (B.C. 235 to A.D.90-150, the empire did trade from Sea to Sea and were documented by Pliny, Strabo and Periplus. The notices are supported by various inscriptions. The port of Calliena (may be the place where river Gangamma meets the Sea) figures in several Buddists Cave inscriptions (H.B.Sarkar, Trade and Commercial Activities of Southern India in the Malaya- Indonesian world up to A.D.1511., Vol I., Firma KLM Pvt ltd., Calcutta 1986)

After Sathavahana, this place was ruled by Gangas The Western Ganga Dynasty (350–1000 CE)

Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti or simply Al Idrisi, who visited this area in 1099–1165 or 1166., mentions about many ports in this area. (At the order of the King, al-Idrisi produced a silver celestial sphere and an enormous map of the world in disk form cast on a silver base. As a commentary to it, he wrote his large geography of the world. It was completed in January 1154 and became known as the Book of Roger in recognition of the King's important role in sponsoring it.)

He mentions about a Port located near West bank of Ganges which is none other than Present Gangamma river near Gokarna.(H.B.Sarkar, Trade and Commercial Activities of Southern India in the Malaya- Indonesian world up to A.D.1511., Vol I., Firma KLM Pvt ltd., Calcutta 1986 page no 204.)

After Western Ganga Dynasty The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. For the first time, a South Indian kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture" and Kannada Litreture, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Vashnava traditions. The 11th century saw the birth of Telugu Literature under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas.

In A.D.1000 Raja raja I gained foot in this area. After seven years Hoysala gained entry in this area, in North Karnataka and South Karnataka was ruled by Yadavas. After this in A.D.1294 Mohamadian force entered in this area with Allaudin as chief and Bhamini Kingdom was established in 1347. Malikaffur entered this place and looted many temples and traders.and next 135 years there were struggles between Vijaya Nagara and Bhamini Emperors.In A.D. 1490, Vijaya nagara Minister Narasinga entered. Then Krishna raya from 1509-1529.

The Bahamani kingdom in India extended from the northern Deccan region to the river Krishna. This empire was founded by Hasan Gangu who waged a battle against Muhammad bin Tughlaq and freed the Bahamani kingdom. He ruled under the title of Bahman Shah and was declared the founder of the Bahamani dynasty. This kingdom was in constant war with the Vijayanagar kingdom which was located to the south of the Bahamani kingdom. The Bahamani kingdom was founded around the year 1346.

[/FONT]
Bahmani Sultanate

[FONT=&quot]The Bahmani dynasty believed that they descended from Bahman the legendary king of Iran.

The sultanate was founded on 3 August 1347 by governor Ala-ud-Din Hassan Bahman Shah, who revolted against the Sultan of Delhi, Md-bin-Tuklak . Nazir uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultan stepped down on that day in favour of Zafer Khan who ascended the throne with the title of Alauddin Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Dekhan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Ahsanabad (Gulbarga) between 1347 and 1425 when it was moved to Muhammadabad (Bidar). [/FONT]
The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Vijaya nagar to the south. The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466–1481) of Mahmud Gawan. After 1518 the sultanate broke up into five states Ahmed Nagar, Berar, Bidar, Bijapore and Golkonda.:
[FONT=&quot]
One of the most notable rulers of the Bahamani kingdom was Firuz Shah Bahamani who waged three battles against the Vijayanagar Empire. He was a learned man who had the knowledge of numerous religious as well as natural sciences. He always wanted to develop the Deccan region as the cultural hub of India. Though he was a devout Muslim, the only vices he was extravagant on were drinking wine and listening to music. Firuz Shah was asked to give up his kingdom and seat for his brother Ahmed Shah I who was considered to be a saint because of his connection with the Sufi saint Gesu Daraz. He annexed the territories of Warangal.
clip_image002.jpg



[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Then It came under Bijapore Sultan


[/FONT]
its political decline in the last quarter of the 15th century and eventual break-up in 1518. The Bijapur Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire on 12 September 1686, after its conquest by the Emperor Aurangzeb.[1]
The founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah (1490-1510), was appointed Bahmani governor of the province, before creating a de-facto independent Bijapur state. Yusuf and his son, Ismail, generally used the title Adil Khan. 'Khan', meaning 'Chief' in Persian,conferred a lower status than 'Shah', indicating royal rank. Only with the rule of Yusuf's grandson, Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1534–1558), did the title of Adil Shah come into common use.
The Bijapur Sultanate's borders changed considerably throughout its history. Its northern boundary remained relatively stable, straddling contemporary Southern Maharashtra and Northern Karnataka. The Sultanate expanded southward, first with the conquest of the Raichur Doab following the defeat of the Vijayanagar Empire at the Battle of Talikota in 1565. Later campaigns, notably during the reign of Mohammed Adil Shah (1627–1657), extended Bijapur's formal borders and nominal authority as far south as Bangalore. Bijapur was bounded on the West by the Portuguese state of Goa and on the East by the Sultanate of Golconda, ruled by the Qutb Shahidynasty.
[FONT=&quot]The former Bahmani provincial capital of Bijapur remained the capital of the Sultanate throughout its existence. After modest earlier developments, Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1534–1558) and Ali Adil Shah I (1558–1580) remodelled Bijapur, providing the citadel and city walls, Friday Mosque, core royal palaces and major water supply infrastructure. Their successors, Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1580–1627), Mohammed Adil Shah (1627–1657) Ali Adil Shah II (1657–1672),and Sikandar Adil Shah 1672-1686[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]

[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot][/FONT]
Sikandar, an infant of four years was placed on the throne of Bijapur in 1672. The history of his reign is really the history of regents and wazirs. It was a period marked by chronic civil war among the factious nobles, independence of the provincial governors, paralysis of the central administration, occasional Mughal invasions, secret alliance but pretended hostility with the Marathas, and final absorption of Bijapur in the Mughal Empire.
[FONT=&quot]

[/FONT]
Sikandar, an infant of four years was placed on the throne of Bijapur in 1672. The history of his reign is really the history of regents and wazirs. It was a period marked by chronic civil war among the factious nobles, independence of the provincial governors, paralysis of the central administration, occasional Mughal invasions, secret alliance but pretended hostility with the Marathas, and final absorption of Bijapur in the Mughal Empire.
Thus, the all round deterioration further crippled the political situation. The prestige of Bijapur was so seriously damaged by internal disruptions that the Mughal general Diler Khan almost coerced and humiliated Sikandar. Despite several sacrifices and desperate attempts on the part of Sikandar, he could not satisfy the growing greed of the Mughals. Sikandar’s alliance with Sambhaji further aggravated the Mughal-Bijapur relations. At last Aurangzeb himself marched out in 1685 with a large army to fulfil the ambition of his life. After desperately defending his capital and standing the prolonged siege of 1685-1686, Sikandar succumbed to the Mughals, and on 12th September 1686 Bijapur was occupied and annexed by Aurangzeb. He was buried at foot side of his spiritual teacher Hazrat Naimullah Hashmi in the open yard in the New Market Place of Bijapur. The Adil Shahi Monarchy thus came to an end.In 1701, Sikkandar Sha Died in Jail. But Aurangazeb also died in 1707, Feb 21
[FONT=&quot]

[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
[FONT=&quot]In Olden days the South India was called Dakshina patha and North India was called Uththara patha.

According to some Hindu legends, Parasurama shot his arrow into the sea and commanded the Sea God to recede up to the point where his arrow landed. The new piece of land thus recovered came to be known as Konkan meaning "piece of earth" or "corner of earth" (Kona(corner) + kana(piece)).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Map_of_the_Periplus_of_the_Erythraean_Sea.jpg


This Gokarna finds a place in the book of Claudius Ptolemaeus, (Ptolemy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) and Periplus (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) who belongs to first century A.D. visited these coastal area and mentions about the ports through which cloths were exported.These two ports are mentioned in Mahaaniddesa (A Buddist Book) in B.C.250.

Periplus mentions about a port Angidii which may be Angadi which lies 7 kms from present Gokarna. This place was called Malai Nadu as the coastal areas were protected by mountains and Claudius Ptolemaeus quotes that they can enter the coast with guide.

This area was ruled by Mauriya Emperor in B.C.3rd BCE.

In the Sathavahana Empire (B.C. 235 to A.D.90-150, the empire did trade from Sea to Sea and were documented by Pliny, Strabo and Periplus. The notices are supported by various inscriptions. The port of Calliena (may be the place where river Gangamma meets the Sea) figures in several Buddists Cave inscriptions (H.B.Sarkar, Trade and Commercial Activities of Southern India in the Malaya- Indonesian world up to A.D.1511., Vol I., Firma KLM Pvt ltd., Calcutta 1986)

After Sathavahana, this place was ruled by Gangas The Western Ganga Dynasty (350–1000 CE)

Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti or simply Al Idrisi, who visited this area in 1099–1165 or 1166., mentions about many ports in this area. (At the order of the King, al-Idrisi produced a silver celestial sphere and an enormous map of the world in disk form cast on a silver base. As a commentary to it, he wrote his large geography of the world. It was completed in January 1154 and became known as the Book of Roger in recognition of the King's important role in sponsoring it.)

He mentions about a Port located near West bank of Ganges which is none other than Present Gangamma river near Gokarna.(H.B.Sarkar, Trade and Commercial Activities of Southern India in the Malaya- Indonesian world up to A.D.1511., Vol I., Firma KLM Pvt ltd., Calcutta 1986 page no 204.)

After Western Ganga Dynasty The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. For the first time, a South Indian kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture" and Kannada Litreture, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Vashnava traditions. The 11th century saw the birth of Telugu Literature under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas.

In A.D.1000 Raja raja I gained foot in this area. After seven years Hoysala gained entry in this area, in North Karnataka and South Karnataka was ruled by Yadavas. After this in A.D.1294 Mohamadian force entered in this area with Allaudin as chief and Bhamini Kingdom was established in 1347. Malikaffur entered this place and looted many temples and traders.and next 135 years there were struggles between Vijaya Nagara and Bhamini Emperors.In A.D. 1490, Vijaya nagara Minister Narasinga entered. Then Krishna raya from 1509-1529.

The Bahamani kingdom in India extended from the northern Deccan region to the river Krishna. This empire was founded by Hasan Gangu who waged a battle against Muhammad bin Tughlaq and freed the Bahamani kingdom. He ruled under the title of Bahman Shah and was declared the founder of the Bahamani dynasty. This kingdom was in constant war with the Vijayanagar kingdom which was located to the south of the Bahamani kingdom. The Bahamani kingdom was founded around the year 1346.

[/FONT]
Bahmani Sultanate

[FONT=&quot]The Bahmani dynasty believed that they descended from Bahman the legendary king of Iran.

The sultanate was founded on 3 August 1347 by governor Ala-ud-Din Hassan Bahman Shah, who revolted against the Sultan of Delhi, Md-bin-Tuklak . Nazir uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultan stepped down on that day in favour of Zafer Khan who ascended the throne with the title of Alauddin Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Dekhan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Ahsanabad (Gulbarga) between 1347 and 1425 when it was moved to Muhammadabad (Bidar). [/FONT]
The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Vijaya nagar to the south. The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466–1481) of Mahmud Gawan. After 1518 the sultanate broke up into five states Ahmed Nagar, Berar, Bidar, Bijapore and Golkonda.:
[FONT=&quot]
One of the most notable rulers of the Bahamani kingdom was Firuz Shah Bahamani who waged three battles against the Vijayanagar Empire. He was a learned man who had the knowledge of numerous religious as well as natural sciences. He always wanted to develop the Deccan region as the cultural hub of India. Though he was a devout Muslim, the only vices he was extravagant on were drinking wine and listening to music. Firuz Shah was asked to give up his kingdom and seat for his brother Ahmed Shah I who was considered to be a saint because of his connection with the Sufi saint Gesu Daraz. He annexed the territories of Warangal.
clip_image002.jpg



[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Then It came under Bijapore Sultan


[/FONT]
its political decline in the last quarter of the 15th century and eventual break-up in 1518. The Bijapur Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire on 12 September 1686, after its conquest by the Emperor Aurangzeb.[1]
The founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah (1490-1510), was appointed Bahmani governor of the province, before creating a de-facto independent Bijapur state. Yusuf and his son, Ismail, generally used the title Adil Khan. 'Khan', meaning 'Chief' in Persian,conferred a lower status than 'Shah', indicating royal rank. Only with the rule of Yusuf's grandson, Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1534–1558), did the title of Adil Shah come into common use.
The Bijapur Sultanate's borders changed considerably throughout its history. Its northern boundary remained relatively stable, straddling contemporary Southern Maharashtra and Northern Karnataka. The Sultanate expanded southward, first with the conquest of the Raichur Doab following the defeat of the Vijayanagar Empire at the Battle of Talikota in 1565. Later campaigns, notably during the reign of Mohammed Adil Shah (1627–1657), extended Bijapur's formal borders and nominal authority as far south as Bangalore. Bijapur was bounded on the West by the Portuguese state of Goa and on the East by the Sultanate of Golconda, ruled by the Qutb Shahidynasty.
[FONT=&quot]The former Bahmani provincial capital of Bijapur remained the capital of the Sultanate throughout its existence. After modest earlier developments, Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1534–1558) and Ali Adil Shah I (1558–1580) remodelled Bijapur, providing the citadel and city walls, Friday Mosque, core royal palaces and major water supply infrastructure. Their successors, Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1580–1627), Mohammed Adil Shah (1627–1657) Ali Adil Shah II (1657–1672),and Sikandar Adil Shah 1672-1686[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]

[/FONT]

Sikandar, an infant of four years was placed on the throne of Bijapur in 1672. The history of his reign is really the history of regents and wazirs. It was a period marked by chronic civil war among the factious nobles, independence of the provincial governors, paralysis of the central administration, occasional Mughal invasions, secret alliance but pretended hostility with the Marathas, and final absorption of Bijapur in the Mughal Empire.
[FONT=&quot]

[/FONT]
Sikandar, an infant of four years was placed on the throne of Bijapur in 1672. The history of his reign is really the history of regents and wazirs. It was a period marked by chronic civil war among the factious nobles, independence of the provincial governors, paralysis of the central administration, occasional Mughal invasions, secret alliance but pretended hostility with the Marathas, and final absorption of Bijapur in the Mughal Empire.
Thus, the all round deterioration further crippled the political situation. The prestige of Bijapur was so seriously damaged by internal disruptions that the Mughal general Diler Khan almost coerced and humiliated Sikandar. Despite several sacrifices and desperate attempts on the part of Sikandar, he could not satisfy the growing greed of the Mughals. Sikandar’s alliance with Sambhaji further aggravated the Mughal-Bijapur relations. At last Aurangzeb himself marched out in 1685 with a large army to fulfil the ambition of his life. After desperately defending his capital and standing the prolonged siege of 1685-1686, Sikandar succumbed to the Mughals, and on 12th September 1686 Bijapur was occupied and annexed by Aurangzeb. He was buried at foot side of his spiritual teacher Hazrat Naimullah Hashmi in the open yard in the New Market Place of Bijapur. The Adil Shahi Monarchy thus came to an end.In 1701, Sikkandar Sha Died in Jail. But Aurangazeb also died in 1707, Feb 21
[FONT=&quot]

[/FONT]
 
OP
OP
R

Ramacchandran

Active member
[FONT=&quot]In 1722 Asaf Jah (Chin Kilicli Khan) became Vizier. He found it impossible to bring the Government into order, and in the year following retired to his province the Deccan, where he became independent and founded the existing dynasty of the Nizam, with effect from 1724.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]New system of Maratha government. Meantime, momentous changes had been effected after long struggles in the Marat government, which resulted during Muhammad Shah's lifetime in[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]the Marathas becoming the most considerable power in India.The excellent system of internal administration instituted by Sivajl had not survived that chief. It fell to pieces, as we have[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]seen, in the hands of his son, Sambhajl. During the civil war between different parties of Marathas which followed on the return of Shahu to his native country, after his release by Bahadur Shah, a new system of government was gradually evolved.The first Peshwa, Balaji Visvanath.. Raja Shahu, who had to defend his position as Raja against a rival claimant, leant for[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]support chiefly on a Brahman from the Konkan, named Balaji Visvanath, who held from 1714 the office of Peshwa, as the second minister was called in the early Maratha administration.^ By[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]reason of his personal qualities Balaji Visvanath made the office to count in practice as the first, and not the second. When he died in 1720 his official position was inherited by his son, Bajl[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Rao (I), a man still abler than himself. The appointment of Peshwa thus became hereditary, and soon overshadowed the Raja, who sank into a purely ornamental position, exactly as the[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Maharajadhiraj of Nepal has done in modern times. After Shahu the descendants of Sivajl dropped out of sight so completeh' that all readers of history think of the Maratha government in the eighteenth century as that of the Peshwas. Their dynasty, as we may call it, comprised seven persons, and may be regarded as having"^ lasted from 1714 to 1818, a little more than a century.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Shahu, who survived until 1748, granted his minister full powers in 1727.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Chauth and Sardesmukhi. Balaji Visvanath, as minister of Shahu, had succeeded in introducing a certain amount of order into the Maratha administration, and had made elaborate arrangements[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]for collecting the assignments of revenue from provinces belonging to other powers on which his government chiefly lived.The Marathas of those davs administered only comparatively small districts directly, preferring to raise contributions from provinces governed, nominallv at all events, by the emperor of Delhi or other potentates of that confused and anarchical tnne. In 1720 Muhammad Shah, confirming arrangements ma"e by Savyid Husain Ali, recognized by treaty the authority of Raja Shahu, admitted his right to lew the chanth, or assessment of one-fourth of the land revenue over the whole Deccan, and permitted him to supplement that levy by an additional tenth ot the land revenue called sardesmukhi.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]i f j[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Balaji Visvanath claimed that those levies should be calculated on the revenue as fixed either bv Todar Mall in Akbar s. or by INlalik Ambar in Shahjahan's time, well knowing that no such amount of revenue could be raised from a ruined country. He tlius securea' In Sivaji's time the Pratinidhi did not exist, and the Peslnva was the first minister.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]The second Peshva, Baji Rao. Bajl Rao (1720) inheritedthe instrument of extortion so cunningly devised by his father,and used it with supreme skill. He resolved to establish the power of his nascent nation by reorganizing the army, and directing it against the northern territories of Hindostan held by the nerveless hands of Muhammad Shah. He also made arrangements by which he checked the growing power of Asaf Jah as ruler of the Hyderabad territories. The quarrels between Asaf Jah and Baji Rao ended in the rivals coming to terms (1731).[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Nadir Shah ; battle of Karnal. Nadir (or Tahmasp) Kuli Khan, ' the greatest warrior Persia has ever produced ', had overthrown the Safavl dynasty in 1736, and been acclaimed king of[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]that country under the style of Nadir Shah. When established on his throne he easily found pretexts for the invasion and plunder of the rich and defenceless Indian plains. Advancing in 1739 through Ghazni, Kabul, and Lahore, he met with no real obstruction until he had approached the Jumna, Avithin 100 miles of Delhi, when he encountered the imperial army entrenched at Karnal, not very far from the field of Panlpat. After a fight lasting[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]two hours the imperialists were routed, some 20,000 being slain,and immense booty falling into the hands of the conqueror. Muhammad Shah made no attempt at further resistance, but attended[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Nadir Shah in his camp, where he was received courteously.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Both kings entered Delhi together, and good order was preserved until a false report of Nadir Shah's death gave occasion to a rising of the inhabitants, in the course of which several hundreds of the invaders were killed. Nadir Shah took terrible vengeance. Seated in the Golden Mosque of Roshanuddaula, situated in the main street of the city, he commanded and watched for nine hours the indiscriminate massacre of the people in uncounted thousands.At last he yielded to the prayers of Muhammad Shah and stayed the carnage, which ceased instantly.Nadir Shah then proceeded systematically and remorselessly to collect from all classes of the population the wealth of Delhi,the accumulation of nearly three centuries and a half.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]"[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]After a stay of fifty-eight days he departed for his own country laden with treasure of incalculable richness, includingthe world-famed peacock throne of Shahjahan. He annexed all the territory to the west of the Indus and the now extinct Hakra. river (ndla of Sankrah)under the provisions of a treaty dated May 26, 1739. Afghanistan was thus severed from the Indian monapchy.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Ahmad Shah of Delhi, Nadir Shah left the NADIR SHAH.No central government a short[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]AnarchyMogul empire bleeding and prostrate worthy of the name existed, and if any province enjoyed for short time the blessing of tolerably good administration, as was the cti[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]in Bengal, that was due to the personal character of the noble or adventurer who had secured control over it. Very few indeed of the prominent men of the time possessed any discernible virtues.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]It is not worth while to relate the intrigues which occupuMl the corrupt and powerless court of Delhi. Maratha affairs willbe noticed presently. Here it will sufliee to note that in 1748Muhammad Shah was succeeded peiiceably by his son Ahmad Shah.Ahmad Shah Durrani. A month before the death of Muhammad Shah liis army, under the command of the heir apparent, Prince Ahmad, and the vizier, Kamalu-d din, had repulsed at Sihrind on the Sutlaj Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Afghan chief who liad succeeded Nadir Shah in the eastern portion of that monarch's dominions. But, notwithstanding his repulse, the Durrani was strong enough to exact tribute from the Panjab.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]After the accession of Ahmad Shah to the throne of Delhi his Durrani namesake came back and obtained the formal cession of the Panjab from the helpless Indian government, which was distracted by civil war.Asaf Jah,' the founder of the Nizam's dynasty, having died at a great age in 1748, his grandson Ghazlu-d din became Vizier at Delhi. That nobleman blinded and deposed Ahmad Shah in 1754,replacing him by a relative who was styled Alamglr II.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Two years later Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India for the third time, and captured Delhi, which again suffered from tlie horrors of massacre and pillage (1756). Mathura, too, was once[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]more the scene of dreadful slaughter. In the summer of 1757 the Durrani returned to his own country.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]We must now revert to Maratha affairs.Balaji, third Peshwa. Bajl Rao, the second Peshwa, who had become the ruler of the Marathas with hardly any pretence of dependence on the nominal Raja, engaged in war with the Nizam after his return from his Delhi raid in 1737. He died in 1740,leaving three sons, the eldest of whom, Balaji Rao, succeeded him as Peshwa, although not without much opposition from other Maratha chiefs. In 1750 Balaji consolidated his authority, making Poona his capital, and becoming the head of a confederacy of chiefs. RaghujI, the most prominent rival chief, had meantime acquired possession of the province of Cuttack or Orissa.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Maratha occupation of the Panjab. In 1758. when Ragoba or Raghunath, the brother of the Peshwa, having taken possession of Lahore, had occupied the whole of the Panjab, it seemed as[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]if the Marathas were destined to become the sovereigns of India.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]That prospect seriously alarmed the Muhammadan rulers. Shujau-ddaula. Nawab of Oudh,* accordingly combined with the Rohilla Afghans, who had settled in Roliilkhand a few years earlier,against the aggressive Hindus. Ahmad Shah Durrani, too, was not content that the Panjab, which he had held for a time, should be in Maratha hands. In 1759 he returned to India and reoccupied that province. Alamglr II, the nominal emperor of Delhi, was murdered at this time, and succeeded by Shah Alam, or Prince Gauliar Ali, then in Bengal. The new emperor was recognized later by Ahmad Shah Durrani.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Maratha power at its zenith[/FONT][FONT=&quot]. [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Tle Maratha power was now,as Elphinstone observes,'at its zenith. Their frontier extended on the north to the Indus and Himalaya, and on the south nearly to the extremity of the peninsula; the territory within those limits that was not their own paid tribute The period between 1761 and 1818 which will be now discussed was one of transition. The Mogul emperor, whose acts had[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Previously filled the pages of history, had shrunk into an insignificant phantom, almost powerless to’ influence the course of events.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]The traditional authority of the court of Delhi during the earlier years of the period merely served as the means of giving a colour of legality to the forcible and essentially lawless proceedings of[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]the various parties who from time to time invoked the sanction of the imperial seal. After 1803 the ghost of imperial control was finally laid and the successor of Akbar became a purely titular[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]sovereign, subsisting as a pensioner of the East India Company.In the years following the disaster of Panlpat, which had destroyed the first Maratha confederacy and annihilated for the[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]moment Hindu hopes of supremacy, the predatory armies of the ' Marathas under the leadership of Sindia, Holkar, and other independent chiefs recovered strength with surprising rapidity,[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]and soon acquired a position offering a reasonable prospect of renewed Hindu domination in both the Deccan and Hindostan.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Two Muhammadan kingdoms in the south, ruled respectively by the Nizam and the upstart Haidar (Hyder) Ali, and also the Muslim Subadar of Bengal, disputed the"^ Maratha claims to levy systematic blackmail and so to exercise substantially sovereign authority over all the states within their reach.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Meantime the foreign settlers on the coast had begun to realize the practical value of European superiority in armament, the art ' of war, and general knowledge. They had learned, even before[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]the close of the seventeenth century, that the ' country powers ',to use the old phrase, were eager to compete for the Ju'Ij) resulting from small bodies of European gunners and disciplined[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
 
OP
OP
R

Ramacchandran

Active member
[FONT=&quot]In 1722 Asaf Jah (Chin Kilicli Khan) became Vizier. He found it impossible to bring the Government into order, and in the year following retired to his province the Deccan, where he became independent and founded the existing dynasty of the Nizam, with effect from 1724.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]New system of Maratha government. Meantime, momentous changes had been effected after long struggles in the Marat government, which resulted during Muhammad Shah's lifetime in[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]the Marathas becoming the most considerable power in India.The excellent system of internal administration instituted by Sivajl had not survived that chief. It fell to pieces, as we have[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]seen, in the hands of his son, Sambhajl. During the civil war between different parties of Marathas which followed on the return of Shahu to his native country, after his release by Bahadur Shah, a new system of government was gradually evolved.The first Peshwa, Balaji Visvanath.. Raja Shahu, who had to defend his position as Raja against a rival claimant, leant for[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]support chiefly on a Brahman from the Konkan, named Balaji Visvanath, who held from 1714 the office of Peshwa, as the second minister was called in the early Maratha administration.^ By[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]reason of his personal qualities Balaji Visvanath made the office to count in practice as the first, and not the second. When he died in 1720 his official position was inherited by his son, Bajl[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Rao (I), a man still abler than himself. The appointment of Peshwa thus became hereditary, and soon overshadowed the Raja, who sank into a purely ornamental position, exactly as the[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Maharajadhiraj of Nepal has done in modern times. After Shahu the descendants of Sivajl dropped out of sight so completeh' that all readers of history think of the Maratha government in the eighteenth century as that of the Peshwas. Their dynasty, as we may call it, comprised seven persons, and may be regarded as having"^ lasted from 1714 to 1818, a little more than a century.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Shahu, who survived until 1748, granted his minister full powers in 1727.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Chauth and Sardesmukhi. Balaji Visvanath, as minister of Shahu, had succeeded in introducing a certain amount of order into the Maratha administration, and had made elaborate arrangements[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]for collecting the assignments of revenue from provinces belonging to other powers on which his government chiefly lived.The Marathas of those davs administered only comparatively small districts directly, preferring to raise contributions from provinces governed, nominallv at all events, by the emperor of Delhi or other potentates of that confused and anarchical tnne. In 1720 Muhammad Shah, confirming arrangements ma"e by Savyid Husain Ali, recognized by treaty the authority of Raja Shahu, admitted his right to lew the chanth, or assessment of one-fourth of the land revenue over the whole Deccan, and permitted him to supplement that levy by an additional tenth ot the land revenue called sardesmukhi.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]i f j[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Balaji Visvanath claimed that those levies should be calculated on the revenue as fixed either bv Todar Mall in Akbar s. or by INlalik Ambar in Shahjahan's time, well knowing that no such amount of revenue could be raised from a ruined country. He tlius securea' In Sivaji's time the Pratinidhi did not exist, and the Peslnva was the first minister.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The second Peshva, Baji Rao. Bajl Rao (1720) inheritedthe instrument of extortion so cunningly devised by his father,and used it with supreme skill. He resolved to establish the power of his nascent nation by reorganizing the army, and directing it against the northern territories of Hindostan held by the nerveless hands of Muhammad Shah. He also made arrangements by which he checked the growing power of Asaf Jah as ruler of the Hyderabad territories. The quarrels between Asaf Jah and Baji Rao ended in the rivals coming to terms (1731).[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Nadir Shah ; battle of Karnal. Nadir (or Tahmasp) Kuli Khan, ' the greatest warrior Persia has ever produced ', had overthrown the Safavl dynasty in 1736, and been acclaimed king of[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]that country under the style of Nadir Shah. When established on his throne he easily found pretexts for the invasion and plunder of the rich and defenceless Indian plains. Advancing in 1739 through Ghazni, Kabul, and Lahore, he met with no real obstruction until he had approached the Jumna, Avithin 100 miles of Delhi, when he encountered the imperial army entrenched at Karnal, not very far from the field of Panlpat. After a fight lasting[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]two hours the imperialists were routed, some 20,000 being slain,and immense booty falling into the hands of the conqueror. Muhammad Shah made no attempt at further resistance, but attended[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Nadir Shah in his camp, where he was received courteously.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Both kings entered Delhi together, and good order was preserved until a false report of Nadir Shah's death gave occasion to a rising of the inhabitants, in the course of which several hundreds of the invaders were killed. Nadir Shah took terrible vengeance. Seated in the Golden Mosque of Roshanuddaula, situated in the main street of the city, he commanded and watched for nine hours the indiscriminate massacre of the people in uncounted thousands.At last he yielded to the prayers of Muhammad Shah and stayed the carnage, which ceased instantly.Nadir Shah then proceeded systematically and remorselessly to collect from all classes of the population the wealth of Delhi,the accumulation of nearly three centuries and a half.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]"[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]After a stay of fifty-eight days he departed for his own country laden with treasure of incalculable richness, includingthe world-famed peacock throne of Shahjahan. He annexed all the territory to the west of the Indus and the now extinct Hakra. river (ndla of Sankrah)under the provisions of a treaty dated May 26, 1739. Afghanistan was thus severed from the Indian monapchy.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Ahmad Shah of Delhi, Nadir Shah left the NADIR SHAH.No central government a short[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]AnarchyMogul empire bleeding and prostrate worthy of the name existed, and if any province enjoyed for short time the blessing of tolerably good administration, as was the cti[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]in Bengal, that was due to the personal character of the noble or adventurer who had secured control over it. Very few indeed of the prominent men of the time possessed any discernible virtues.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]It is not worth while to relate the intrigues which occupuMl the corrupt and powerless court of Delhi. Maratha affairs willbe noticed presently. Here it will sufliee to note that in 1748Muhammad Shah was succeeded peiiceably by his son Ahmad Shah.Ahmad Shah Durrani. A month before the death of Muhammad Shah liis army, under the command of the heir apparent, Prince Ahmad, and the vizier, Kamalu-d din, had repulsed at Sihrind on the Sutlaj Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Afghan chief who liad succeeded Nadir Shah in the eastern portion of that monarch's dominions. But, notwithstanding his repulse, the Durrani was strong enough to exact tribute from the Panjab.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]After the accession of Ahmad Shah to the throne of Delhi his Durrani namesake came back and obtained the formal cession of the Panjab from the helpless Indian government, which was distracted by civil war.Asaf Jah,' the founder of the Nizam's dynasty, having died at a great age in 1748, his grandson Ghazlu-d din became Vizier at Delhi. That nobleman blinded and deposed Ahmad Shah in 1754,replacing him by a relative who was styled Alamglr II.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Two years later Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India for the third time, and captured Delhi, which again suffered from tlie horrors of massacre and pillage (1756). Mathura, too, was once[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]more the scene of dreadful slaughter. In the summer of 1757 the Durrani returned to his own country.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]We must now revert to Maratha affairs.Balaji, third Peshwa. Bajl Rao, the second Peshwa, who had become the ruler of the Marathas with hardly any pretence of dependence on the nominal Raja, engaged in war with the Nizam after his return from his Delhi raid in 1737. He died in 1740,leaving three sons, the eldest of whom, Balaji Rao, succeeded him as Peshwa, although not without much opposition from other Maratha chiefs. In 1750 Balaji consolidated his authority, making Poona his capital, and becoming the head of a confederacy of chiefs. RaghujI, the most prominent rival chief, had meantime acquired possession of the province of Cuttack or Orissa.[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Maratha occupation of the Panjab. In 1758. when Ragoba or Raghunath, the brother of the Peshwa, having taken possession of Lahore, had occupied the whole of the Panjab, it seemed as[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]if the Marathas were destined to become the sovereigns of India.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]That prospect seriously alarmed the Muhammadan rulers. Shujau-ddaula. Nawab of Oudh,* accordingly combined with the Rohilla Afghans, who had settled in Roliilkhand a few years earlier,against the aggressive Hindus. Ahmad Shah Durrani, too, was not content that the Panjab, which he had held for a time, should be in Maratha hands. In 1759 he returned to India and reoccupied that province. Alamglr II, the nominal emperor of Delhi, was murdered at this time, and succeeded by Shah Alam, or Prince Gauliar Ali, then in Bengal. The new emperor was recognized later by Ahmad Shah Durrani.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Maratha power at its zenith[/FONT][FONT=&quot]. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Tle Maratha power was now,as Elphinstone observes,'at its zenith. Their frontier extended on the north to the Indus and Himalaya, and on the south nearly to the extremity of the peninsula; the territory within those limits that was not their own paid tribute The period between 1761 and 1818 which will be now discussed was one of transition. The Mogul emperor, whose acts had[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Previously filled the pages of history, had shrunk into an insignificant phantom, almost powerless to’ influence the course of events.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The traditional authority of the court of Delhi during the earlier years of the period merely served as the means of giving a colour of legality to the forcible and essentially lawless proceedings of[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]the various parties who from time to time invoked the sanction of the imperial seal. After 1803 the ghost of imperial control was finally laid and the successor of Akbar became a purely titular[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]sovereign, subsisting as a pensioner of the East India Company.In the years following the disaster of Panlpat, which had destroyed the first Maratha confederacy and annihilated for the[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]moment Hindu hopes of supremacy, the predatory armies of the ' Marathas under the leadership of Sindia, Holkar, and other independent chiefs recovered strength with surprising rapidity,[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]and soon acquired a position offering a reasonable prospect of renewed Hindu domination in both the Deccan and Hindostan.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Two Muhammadan kingdoms in the south, ruled respectively by the Nizam and the upstart Haidar (Hyder) Ali, and also the Muslim Subadar of Bengal, disputed the"^ Maratha claims to levy systematic blackmail and so to exercise substantially sovereign authority over all the states within their reach.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Meantime the foreign settlers on the coast had begun to realize the practical value of European superiority in armament, the art ' of war, and general knowledge. They had learned, even before[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]the close of the seventeenth century, that the ' country powers ',to use the old phrase, were eager to compete for the Ju'Ij) resulting from small bodies of European gunners and disciplined[/FONT]
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
This subject is to be followed by Hyder and Tippu Sultan.

Please allow me some time so that I can submit more authenticated information. Map_of_the_Periplus_of_the_Erythraean_Sea.jpg
 
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Ramacchandran

Active member
The books I referred are

A.Appadoorai, Economic Conditions in Southern India (1000-1500.A.D.), Vol I & II., University of Madras1990
K.A.Nilakanta Sastri, Foreign Notices of South India From Megasthanes to Mahuan, University of Madras 2001
H.B.Sarkar, Trade and Commercial Activities of Southern India in the Malayo-Indonesisn World up to A.D.1511 Vol I, Firma KLM Pvt.Ltd., Calcutta 1986,
VINCENT A. SMITH, Oxford History of India From the Earliest Times to the end of 1911, Clarendon Press, U.K. 1919
K.V.Subramanya Iyer ,Historical Sketches of Anciant Dekhan, Modern Printing Press Madras 1917.
 
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