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Was it Kula-kalvi that Rajaji wanted?

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Vamanan

Member
Rajaji is many things to many people...and some people love to criticise him...I too am not particularly a fan of Rajaji...but calling the education system that he wanted to bring in schools 'Kula-kalvi' along with EVR and his kanneer thuligal, does not quite do justice to Rajaji or to ourselves...
Do you really believe that Rajaji was a casteist man who wanted a barbers son do nothing but give a hair cut?
Would the man who appointed Harijans (as they were then called) to distribute water in Salem municipality against upper caste opposition, want to introduce education that would harden caste cleavages?
As the premier of Madras Presidency, he envisaged the best possible system based on the educational resources available and the goals that had been set. He wanted the maximum number of children to be educated and so wanted to make way for two shifts.
Can one believe that the man who tredged to Gopalapuram in a last bit attempt to save prohibition, was insensitive to the sufferings of the poor?
Agreed that it turned out to be political suicide..and the man known to be a rajathantri should have shunned it..It is another story trying to find out why he sought to commit political harakiri..There was perhaps some very strong streak of masochism and he wanted it to be that way...
 

RVR

Well-known member
One problem with Rajaji was, he was always ahead of times.

He said socialism will not bring prosperity to India. He was proved correct and only in 1991, we started abolishing socialist policies and liberated business from the clutches of Licence/Control Raj. I have read his way back in early seventies where he is to argue `Let the businessman fight at market place and not at the corridors of power'. But unfortunately socialism was at peak where Indira Gandhi nationalised banks and Insurance companies. The country went almost bankrupt in the early 90s and we didn't had any other option except both internal and external liberalisation.

Rajaji visualised the nuclear proliferation long back and met John Kennady and Kurushev. When India conducted first atomic explosion in 1974, he strongly disapproved it stating that Pakistan will go nuclear. But nobody listened to him and on the contrary every body celebrated the explosion. Today Pakistan's nuclear assets may go into the hands of terrorists & Taliban and in such a situation, it is really horrible to visualise the situation.

Our politicians think only of today and doesn't bother about the future. Under these circumstances, great statesman like Rajaji has no place in Indian Politics.

All the best
 

SuryaKasyapa

Active member
I am sorry, I could not understand the spirit behind this thread.

Is it a ploy to heap slanders on the great person Rajaji by vested interests? Or is it a really naive intention to know more about the Great man - the Bheeshma pitaamaha of Indian politics?

Sri RVR has put it correctly : "One problem with Rajaji was, he was always ahead of times."

He was a great visionary.

If we take some of his major speeches or articles and substitute some names and places with present day names -- it will suit exactly and appear as if written today.
Such was his vision.

If one can get old issues of Swarajya , it will help us know his analytical wisdom.

He was a great orator, with equal knowledge in history, spiriuality and Politics.
He was a supporter of universal education, was against government interfering in individual freedom , whether it is age of marriage or hereditary occupations.
By advocating hereditary occupations he was on the side of excellence in the field, and that was giving respect o those practising the arts and crafts.

He was forthright in critcising congress and Nehru on Five year plans beginning in the midst of a government term , as he thought it was a trick to perpetuate same rule quoting continuation.

His baritone still rings in my home everyday , when I play Smt M.S.Subbulakshmi's "Bhaja Govindam &Vishnu Sahsranaamam"

Greetings


 

RVR

Well-known member
The term Kula Kalvi is grossly mis-understood.

Core competence theory of eminent Management Guru Sri Coimbatore Krishna Prahlad also talks on sticking to the same profession for prosperity.

Today normal hair cutting saloons have become Mens Beauty Parlours. They are all very well decorated, air-conditioned and collect very high charges for their services. It is run by the same community which doing road side hair-cutting, upgraded into saloon and now beauty parlours.

We treat them with great respect today.

Rajaji probably visualised this development as Kula Kalvi which was mis-understood those days.

As I wrote earlier, Rajaji was always ahead of times. People who understood him considered it as strength. Others who misunderstood blamed him.

All the best
 

kunjuppu

Well-known member
much as i admire rajaji for his economic wisdom and honesty, i am afraid, i think, vamanan is right.

rajaji did not understand the yearnings of the common folks. they don't want to do the same jobs for their children, but better them.

we as a community have the same ambitions.

it was good that kula kalvi did not get implemented. it led to the opening up of education on all fields to all groups.

it probably guaranteed the flourishing of hinduism, as otherwise, this one factor alone, would be a tempting reason to jump to christianity.

i know a maid in my friend's house, whose daughter was given free education at the local school upto teacher level, in return for her soul.

in a way, it also freed brahmins. i know a TB jeweller in new york. a cousin of mine has an hair dressing saloon. so on and so on.

move with the changes and times, i say :)
 
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Vamanan

Member
Behind the adjective Kula kalvi

I think I am being misunderstood...What I meant to do was set the ball rolling for new thinking on Rajaji...
The fact is that even Rajaji admirers are calling the educational scheme he sought to introduce as Kula Kalvi.
I believe that this is the greatest disservice to the man.
It was the name used by his worst critics.
What Rajaji felt was that children could also learn from the expertise of their parents.
 

KRS

Well-known member
So, how does this work? A child then can become a physician from the school education and also learn to become a barber, if his father is a barber?

Please elaborate, since I truly do not understand what Sri Rajaji proposed. Thanks.

Regards,
KRS

I think I am being misunderstood...What I meant to do was set the ball rolling for new thinking on Rajaji...
The fact is that even Rajaji admirers are calling the educational scheme he sought to introduce as Kula Kalvi.
I believe that this is the greatest disservice to the man.
It was the name used by his worst critics.
What Rajaji felt was that children could also learn from the expertise of their parents.
 

RVR

Well-known member
The term `Kula Kalvi' coined for the project may be wrong. But the objective was not at all wrong. The core-competence theory of eminent Management guru C.K.Prahlad also basically stresses on specialising one profession or in one particular service instead of dissipating our energies in multiple fields.

I would like to bring the attention of everybody to an economic comparison of two countries - South Korea and India.

In 1970, both the countries had almost same per capita income levels.

But South Korea adopted Market economy policies and has grown into a fully developed nation today.

India adopted socialistic policies in 1970 including Bank nationalisation etc and today it is far behind South Korea in almost all the important parameters.

Per capita income in South Korea is many times more than that of India.

Rajaji was very much alive and active at that time and wrote several articles in Swarajya. But nobody listened to him.

We have paid very heavy price for not listening to him

All the best
 
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Vamanan

Member
The exact name and the intention

Modified Scheme of Elementary Education or New Scheme of Elementary Education or Madras Scheme of Elementary Education ...was the exact name of the scheme Rajaji introduced.

Rajaji brought it as a measure to ensure universal education..as the number of schools available at that time were not enough for the purpose. He thought that three hours of school education would do...(Nehru and Rajendra Prasad supported his idea). He felt that with this proposal there could be two shifts and double the number of children in school.
In the remaining time, he said the the kids could learn the traditional jobs...(currently, while doing research for articles on MKT, I was told by his sister - Enga Annaaru Enga Velaiyum Oru Alavukku Seivaaru...; does it take away from his status as the greatest singer of the purana era of tamil films?). For heavens sake don't mistake it as a plot to make artisans, artisans all their lives. If my father is a sastrigal, and I know the work too, how does it come in the way of my being a nuclear scientist or painter or whatever? In fact I would be able to appreciate my father's lot better and empathise with him.
Rajaji felt that students coming from rural backgrounds would score better in things having to do with the traditional occupations and that would give them a lead over city students...
I know that the mantra of egalitarianism rules today...in a skewed..distorted and corrupted manner...In this climate, anything that has to do with common sense or simple human behaviour can be misunderstood.
The tragedy of the too-intellectual Rajaji was that he believed in his system so much that he began to plead....Hang me if you want...but please accept my system. He was prepared to go through the absolute loneliness of who he was...a Brahmin craving for the well-being of society but suspected for his motives...and pleaded for his system...That was a rather nasty fate to experience...But as everyone knows the old man could take a hell of a lot...
Kovai Ayyamuthu, a great Gandhian and uncompromising freedom fighter, who would write a book on Rajaji calling him his father (Rajaji En Thanthai), criticised him for handing over tamil nadu to the chauvinistic Dravidian parties by such actions as these...The Tamils are a hotheaded and emotional people...and emotion was what Rajaji suspected all his life...As history shows caste plays a very important part in the lives of the Tamils, and when Rajaji was not prepared to play the double game on the issue, it was his Waterloo....But the proposal, in Rajaji's vision, was a Nalakkalvi Thittam and not a Kulakkalvi Thittam. He was like a good samaritan who wanted to distribute foodstuffs to hungry fellow passengers and was suspected of being a biscuit bandit..He did the next best thing...de-trained at the next halt.
 
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Sirs,
kula kalvi as a formal system of education is not good. By straight jacketing education based on one's profession or service, one is restricting the common folks to grow and take up other profession or service. Venkat
 

kunjuppu

Well-known member
rajaji may have been well intentioned. i do not know about that, particularly re caste. he was a progressive, but a progressive for those times. i admire him for that.

but the kula kalvi thittam, was the work of the politician rajaji.

rajaji, the politician, was no match either for sathyamurthi, kamaraj or for the dravidian parties.

the dravidian parties, were always one step ahead of the congress of kamaraj. in politics, any weapon is game, as we know.

it has happened to many of our pre independence leaders - those who were fired up by the cause of independence, found themselves like fish out of water after aug 15, 1947.

names like jayaprakash narayan, jb kirpalani, shriman narayan etc. comes to mind now...
 

SuryaKasyapa

Active member
rajaji may have been well intentioned. i do not know about that, particularly re caste. he was a progressive, but a progressive for those times. i admire him for that.


I remember having read somewhere in my college days ,that when even Nehru had his own dilemma when his daughter Indira ( later Indira Gandhi) wanted to marry Phiroze Gandhi , it was Rajaji's counsel which prevailed upon Nehru.
 

RVR

Well-known member
rajaji may have been well intentioned. i do not know about that, particularly re caste. he was a progressive, but a progressive for those times. i admire him for that.


I remember having read somewhere in my college days ,that when even Nehru had his own dilemma when his daughter Indira ( later Indira Gandhi) wanted to marry Phiroze Gandhi , it was Rajaji's counsel which prevailed upon Nehru.

Rajaji's daughter married Mahatma Gandhi's son. Mahatma Gandhi is not a brahmin by birth.

All the best
 

happyhindu

Well-known member
As much as i admire Rajaji and consider him futuristic, must also acknowledge that no human is perfect.

The kula-kalvi thitam was a regressive policy. It wud not have allowed young people to pursue their own preferred choice of field in education.

The ability to sustain the open economy that we embraced years later, perhaps wud not have been possible if tamilnadu were to follow the kula-kalvi policy.

Thankfully, it was revoked.
 

RVR

Well-known member
As much as i admire Rajaji and consider him futuristic, must also acknowledge that no human is perfect.

The kula-kalvi thitam was a regressive policy. It wud not have allowed young people to pursue their own preferred choice of field in education.

The ability to sustain the open economy that we embraced years later, perhaps wud not have been possible if tamilnadu were to follow the kula-kalvi policy.

Thankfully, it was revoked.

I fully agree that open economy is the best policy which Rajaji advocated several decades earlier. I still remember the famous quote of Rajaji `Let the businessman not fight at the corridors of power. Let them go and fight at the market place'

Rajaji came out of congress party only after it adopted `Socialism' at the Avadi Congress. He had developed deep differences with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru only on the issue socialism. But `socialism' was easily saleable to the masses as compared to the open economy policy.

Again when Indira Gandhi exploded atomic bomb in 1974, the entire nation congradulated her. Rajaji was the lone voice to oppose the event. He warned at that time itself that Pakistan will try to go nuclear and we will face more problems in the future. It is a reality now. If the nuclear assets of Pakistan goes to Taliban and/or terrorist of Pakistan, what will happen?

Regarding Kula Kalvi, it is grossly a mis-managed affair. Nobody can suspect the intentions of Rajaji who admitted Daliths to temple first. He allowed intercaste marriage of his daughter with Gandhiji's son.

The name Kula Kalvi is wrong coining of the title which I don't agree. In the early 50's schools were very much less. He introduced two shift system to overcome the shortage. One shift for regular education and other shift for skill set development. Elders in my own family have undergone training under a carpentor when the scheme was introduced. The skill set development was not identified with a particular caste. It is a wrong notion carried forward for several decades now.

If you analyse Singapore education system today, they continuously watch student till 8th standard. Based on their performance the Government decides whether they should pursue higher education in NUS/NTU or polytechnic or vocational courses. Further education is provided in the respective fields and everybody is happy. Singapore per capita is much higher than most of the developed countries. As a nation they believe, they require services from several sectors. The fellow who is selected for Driver training is doing a great service by running buses/metro rail or taxi.

My earnest assessment is Rajaji would have the same Singapore model as mind. But when it came for implementation, it was bungled. Training each and every student in a particular skill is a great service. Singapore Government thinks that it is its duty and is prospering well. Unfortunately caste was brought into the program and it collapsed. Unemployment problem for a nation of India's size would have been addressed long back if Rajaji's vision is properly coined and implemented.

All the best
 

happyhindu

Well-known member
Regarding Kula Kalvi, it is grossly a mis-managed affair. Nobody can suspect the intentions of Rajaji who admitted Daliths to temple first. He allowed intercaste marriage of his daughter with Gandhiji's son.

The name Kula Kalvi is wrong coining of the title which I don't agree. In the early 50's schools were very much less. He introduced two shift system to overcome the shortage. One shift for regular education and other shift for skill set development. Elders in my own family have undergone training under a carpentor when the scheme was introduced. The skill set development was not identified with a particular caste. It is a wrong notion carried forward for several decades now.

Thankyou for the info Shri Venkataramani ji. Had not known about the non-caste factor in imparting skills. If the skills were not identified with a particular caste, how did the idea get propagated that the skill-set was indeed identified with a particular caste?

Regards.
 

RVR

Well-known member
Thankyou for the info Shri Venkataramani ji. Had not known about the non-caste factor in imparting skills. If the skills were not identified with a particular caste, how did the idea get propagated that the skill-set was indeed identified with a particular caste?

Regards.

Rajaji's problem was he was too honest to be a politician. Normally politics and honesty doesn't go together. He was a plain speaking person and got into problem. Coining of the word `kula kalvi' itself is a wrong title to the project. There was a big communication gap between Rajaji and the ordinary people. Rajaji has written Bagavath Geetha, Ramayana and Mahabaratha in simple Tamil. But his contact with the audience in public meetings was poor. Only Socialism is the easily saleable slogan those days. Rajaji opposed socialism.

In the year 1970 both India and South Korea had almost same per capita income. Subsequent to the above year, South Korea adopted market economy and has become a developed country. India adopted socialism and practically went bankrupt in 1990-91. India paid a heavy price for not listening to Rajaji.

Problem with Rajaji is his level of thinking was very high and his communication with mass public was very poor.
 
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kumargg38

Member
Just the name is given as kulakkalvi and degraded completely. But please observe, kulak kalvi is on in only politics in this country.
Only one family to rule and whenever others come - by any chance - we either defeat them or accept them as weak alternative.
More than that we espeacially the Thinnai pechu karargal - certify that they only provide stable govt. how to understand this?
 

suvarchas

Active member
Rajaji's Kulakalvi-a misnomer

Let me first dispel the much misunderstood concept about Rajaji's vocational education scheme.

In the days after Freedom,Rajaji felt educating the rural people was the top priority.Then people who were using their ward to earn income for family would not send them to schools.Hhence he mooted the idea of one session theory and another session of family vocation which was twisted out of proportion by EVR/CNA.

This was also indirectly supported by the CM in waiting,K.Kamaraj who was impatient as the ministry had then stablilised after Rajaji made all the fringe parties merge their parties with Congress.KK stipulated that they would allow Rajaji to continue if he withdrew his scheme.But he was too proud to do that.In the movie about KK,glorifying him was okay.But they portrayed Rajaji as a villain

This led to his resignation on health grounds.This led to his nurture a rancour and paved way for the unholy alliance in 1967 which became the undoing of TN and also the practice of allying only for election irrespective of idealogies came to stay
 
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Vamanan

Member
Shri RVR...Kulakkalvi was not the name of the scheme...It was the abuse of those who attacked Rajaji...As such, it would be better not to call it Kulakalvi...
 

RVR

Well-known member
Shri RVR...Kulakkalvi was not the name of the scheme...It was the abuse of those who attacked Rajaji...As such, it would be better not to call it Kulakalvi...

Is it so? I was a child when the scheme was introduced. I came to know about the scheme only at later years.

If it is so, they why blame Rajaji for the whole thing. My own elder brother told me that half a day he use to attend school and half a day with a carpenter. Acquiring a skill at such an young age is a great boon to the society.

Scientific/Engineering mind is developed at a very young age if craft education is part of curriculam. My elder brother was able complete B.Tech to Ph.D from IIT probably because of craft education. He is in the mid sixties and is still proud that he is a practicing engineer till date. He is heading a Government of India recognised private R & D unit with few global patents to his credit.

I think education system should be thoroughly revamped imparting practical knowledge with supportive theory.

All the best
 

pvraman

Active member
IMHO, this system introduced by Rajaji was excellent. If we see, what one is doing when he studies in any foreign country. He does work in super market or Petrol Pump etc etc (not very highly technical one) whatever his kulam or gothram is, to earn some money. He/ She understands that the money would help to meet the ends to some extent, Even though they might be studying greater professional courses.

I feel, it could have produced lot of responsible citizens. When we think, we think only about barbers, why not others. To think of it, one of my class mates could not complete his higher secondary school (poverty) and started to work with his father - a Barber. We were his customers and a joint. Today as it is mentioned barbers are having more respectable earnings. If we do the job at the young age, they will know the value of Hard work, and respect other professions. They learn further in order to choose the carrier. More importantly, they need not run pillar to post for a job in the first place.

A wonderful thing that could have materialized is many of the children would have got education too. Necessary education.

The Dravidian politicians will oppose it. Because, it will ruin their foundation. Keeping the public in a state of poverty and uneducated is the key for their prosperity. They wont have anybody in their youth wing.....................

It was a great attempt.
 

RVR

Well-known member
I earnestly feel that vocational education and training will solve unemployment to a great extent in a highly populated country like India. Even in early 50s and 60s barbers from our village migrated to Malaysia and Singapore and they are all doing extremely well now. Now lot of skilled people are migrating to gulf countries and are in great demand.

Because of migration of skilled people outside India, there is shortage of skilled technicians in India also. A Carpentor or Mason or electrician or plumber charges Rs.400 to 500 per day right here in Chennai - reason - short supply.

It is high time we change our education system focus on vocational training to solve the unemployment problem in the country to great extent.

As I said earlier, Rajaji was always ahead of times. He never played to vote bank politics which is being practiced by the present politicians of almost all political parties.

All the best
 
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pannvalan

Well-known member
I too have great admiration for Rajaji's wisdom and his thinking ahead of his times.

But unfortunately, he was misunderstood for his revolutionary ideas and attacked personally too. Let us see these points.

1. His political adversaries, especially those in DK and DMK and also one section of
people in Congress itself opposed him, only because he happened to be a
Brahmin.

2. The phrase 'Kula Kalvi' is a misnomer and it was twisted out of its true sense and
objective and used in a derogatory manner, repeatedly.

3. He only wanted all people, particularly the younger generation, to learn their
tradtional skills. He never advocated them to practise only their hereditary
profession.


He thought at the times of distress, one's skills in their hereditary profession would
come to his/her help, because learning such innate skills is much easier than any
other professional skills and it will come about naturally, without any investment
or major expenditure.

4. In those days, professional education was very nascent, nay did not even take
roots in the country, as it is today. Therefore, to understand him thoroughly we
must go back in time.

5. He was accused of perpetuating the caste system, even though the leaders of the
opposing groups themselves like EVR, Anna and Mu Ka sought his political counsel
and support personally, during critical times. He was the one who sent Congress
out of power in Tamilnadu in 1967, by allying with DMK in 1967 general elections for
the state assembly. Till date, after 4 decades, Congress is not able to get back to
power.

6. His famous phrase "Licence Raj, Quota Raj" is very popular amongst students of
public administration and political science, even this day.

7. He opposed Nehruvian economic models of 'mixed economy'. He vehemently
criticised communism and socialism. He wanted open market economy.

8. Remember, even Mr. Nani Palkiwala questioned "Why the Government in India should
make Breads (Modern Breads) and Condoms (Nirodh)?" Is it the duty of a
responsible government at the centre, to engage itself in such trivial activities?

9. Rajaji's another greatest contribution was introduction of Sales Tax in States, to
augment their alternate sources of revenue. It remains the single greatest source
of revenue for the states, even today.

10. As our other members have pointed out, Rajaji was a role model in bringing out so
many social reforms by himself.

11. Even though he underwent so many miseries and distress in his personal life,
his deep sense of devotion made him write "Kurai Ondrum Illai Marai Moorthy
Kanna".

What a noble man he was!
 
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Raghy

Well-known member
I do not know much about politics. I don't know whether I was born at that time or not. But, before I completed my school final, I knew that I would be benefitted by learning a trade. I did that. I never had to regret my decision. My trade did not get me a lot of money; but, it provided a comfortable living all through the years.
 
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