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Tarpana Mantras

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[FONT=&quot]ṇ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]a ma[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ntras[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]I propose to give the ṛks and a few non-ṛk mantras which are used in [/FONT][FONT=&quot]tarpa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]As most of us are probably aware the word ‘tarpa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a’ comes from the root “tṛp” meaning, to satisfy, to satiate, to please. This rite, therefore, is believed to satisfy those for whom it is addressed or performed, viz., devas, pitṛs, ṛṣis, etc.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The mantras discussed below figure in the pitṛ tarpa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a which is to be done on prescribed days/occasions.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]आयात पितरः सॊम्या गम्भीरैः पथिभिः पूर्व्यैः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]प्रजां अस्मभ्यम् ददतो रयिं च दीर्घायुत्वं च शतशारदं च ॥[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ஆயாத பிதரஃ ஸோம்யா கம்பீரைஃ பதிபிஃ பூர்வ்யைஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ப்ரஜாம் அஸ்மப்யம் தததோ ரயிம் ச தீர்காயுத்வம் ச [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]y[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ta pitara[/FONT][FONT=&quot] somy[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] gambh[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ī[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rai[/FONT][FONT=&quot] pathibhi[/FONT][FONT=&quot] p[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rvyai[/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]praj[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot] asmabhyam dadato rayi[/FONT][FONT=&quot] ca d[/FONT]ī[FONT=&quot]rgh[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot]yutva[/FONT][FONT=&quot] ca [/FONT]ś[FONT=&quot]ata[/FONT]śā[FONT=&quot]rada[/FONT][FONT=&quot] ca ||[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]This mantra is taken from atharva veda, where it appears (in the paipālāda saṃhitā) with slight differences as shown below:[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]अथर्वा ऋषिः (यमो मन्त्रोक्ताश्च)[/FONT][FONT=&quot]*[/FONT][FONT=&quot] ।भुरिगास्तार पङ्क्ति: छन्दः ।[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]आ यात पितरः सोम्यासो गंभ्र्र्रैः पथिभिः पितृयाणैः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]आयुरस्मभ्यं दधतः प्रजां च रायश्च पोषैरभि नः सचध्वम् ॥[/FONT][FONT=&quot]अथर्व वेद १८.४.६२[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]அதர்வா ருஷிஃ [/FONT][FONT=&quot](யமோ மந்த்ரோக்தாஸ்ச)* | புரிகாஸ்தார பங்க்தி: சந்தஃ |[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ஆ யாத பிதரஃ ஸோம்யாஸோ கம்பீரைஃ பதிபிஃ பித்ருயாணைஃ [/FONT][FONT=&quot]|[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ஆயுரஸ்மப்யம் தததஃ ப்ரஜாம் ச ராயஸ்ச போஷைரபி நஃ ஸசத்வம் [/FONT][FONT=&quot]|| அதர்வ வேத ௧௮.௪.௬௨[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]atharvā ṛṣiḥ (yamo mantroktāśca)* |bhurigāstāra paṅkti: chandaḥ |[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ā yāta pitaraḥ somyāso gaṃbhrrraiḥ pathibhiḥ pitṛyāṇaiḥ |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]āyurasmabhyaṃ dadhataḥ prajāṃ ca rāyaśca poṣairabhi naḥ sacadhvam || atharva veda 18.4.62[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]* yama is the devataa also.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]This verse also, reportedly appears in some other texts such as the hiraṇyakeśin gyhyasūtra,mantra brāhmaṇa, kauśika sūtra etc., also partly or with differences; anyway, it is not a ṛk in the correct sense of the term.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Come Ye ! O soma-loving pitṛs ! by unfathomed (profound) paths which the manes of yore (also) trod, and give us wealth, long life and progeny.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]...to be continued
[FONT=&quot]In the previous post I had generally written “long life” as one of the boons asked for from the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]pitṛs. But the actual words used are “dīrghāyutvam ca śataśāradam ca” meaning a ‘long life of a hundred autumns’. Prayers for long life of a hundred autumns are frequent in the vedic texts as compared to the later ones. There is evidence to show that people in the ṛgvedic times generally might have had long lives. Even then one hundred years was something to be aspired for. When we hear stories of ṛṣis doing penance (tapas) for hundreds or thousands of years from later purāṇas, we must remember that these are all mere flights of fancy and untrue. In the case of this verse also, it is the ṛṣi who is himself asking for a life span of one hundred years, not any ordinary man in the jungle (if we suppose there were no streets in those times). Hence the notion that the ṛṣis are some superhuman beings or divine beings, is entirely false and is one of the inputs given by the orthodoxy to bewilder and thus beguile the gullible followers.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]सकृद् आच्छिन्नं बर्‌हिरूर्णामृदु । [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]स्योनं पितृभ्यस्त्वाभराम्यहम् ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]अस्मिन् सीदन्तु मे पितरः सोम्याः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]पितामहैः प्रपितामहैश्चानुगैः सह ॥ तै. ब्रा.३.७.४.१०[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ஸக்ருத் ஆச்சிந்நம் பர்‍ஹிரூர்ணாம்ருது [/FONT][FONT=&quot]| [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ஸ்யோநம் பித்ருப்யஸ்த்வாபராம்யஹம் [/FONT][FONT=&quot]|[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]அஸ்மிந் ஸீதந்து மே பிதரஃ ஸோம்யாஃ [/FONT][FONT=&quot]|[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]பிதாமஹைஃ ப்ரபிதாமஹைஸ்சாநுகைஃ ஸஹ [/FONT][FONT=&quot]|| [/FONT][FONT=&quot]தை. ப்ரா.௩.௭.௪.௰[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]sak[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṛ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]d ācchinna[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] bar–hirūr[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṇ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ām[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṛ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]du | [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]syona[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṛ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]bhyastvābharāmyaham |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]asmin sīdantu me pitara[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] somyā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]pitāmahai[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] prapitāmahaiścānugai[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] saha || tai. brā.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot] : This mantra is recited for offering āsana for the pitṝ s. It, again, is not a ṛk and found only in the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]āpastamba śrauta sūtra[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]And taittirīya brāhmaṇa.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Come at once, my manes (pitṝ s), accompanied by the grand fathers and great grandfathers), be seated before on this soft couch of sacrificial grass that I keep for you (meaning the two darbha grasses* placed during [/FONT][FONT=&quot]tarpa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a as seat for the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]pitṝ s) (which is) unbroken (and) soft as wool.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]* Please see the extent to which the import of the words uttered as mantra and our actual action are at variance. Here, we keep two blades of coarse “darbha” grass, most probably in a brass plate with rim, large enough to hold the poured water, but tell the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]pitṝ s, in a rather straight-faced way that we have “placed a soft couch of sacrificial grass, unbroken ( not torn, in this context) and soft as wool”. Now, if we put ourselves as guests of someone else and he offers some rough and abrasive seat and describes it, nevertheless, as ‘woolly soft’ how will we feel?[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ऋषिः - यामायनश्शङ्खः । छन्दः - त्रिष्टुप् । देवता - पितरः ।[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]उदीरतां अवर उद् परास उन्मध्यमाः पितरः सॊम्यासः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]असुं य ईयुरवृका ऋतज्ञास्तॆनॊऽवन्तु पितरो हवेषु ॥ ऋ. वॆ. १०.१४.६[/FONT]

ருஷிஃ - யாமாயநஃ சங்கஃ | சந்தஃ - த்ரிஷ்டுப் | தேவதா - பிதரஃ |

உதீரதாம் அவர உத் பராஸ உந்மத்யமாஃ பிதரஃ ஸோம்யாஸஃ |
அஸும் ய ஈயுரவ்ருகா ருதஜ்ஞாஸ்தெநொऽவந்து பிதரோ ஹவேஷு ||
ரிக்வேதம் ௧0.௧௪.௬

[FONT=&quot]ṛṣ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]i[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] - y[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]m[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]yana[/FONT][FONT=&quot]śś[/FONT][FONT=&quot]a[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]kha[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] | chanda[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] - tri[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṣṭ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]up | devat[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - pitara[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ud[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ī[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rat[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] avara ud par[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]sa unmadhyam[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] pitara[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] somy[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]sa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]asu[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] ya [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ī[/FONT][FONT=&quot]yurav[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]k[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]tajñ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]steno:'vantu pitaro have[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]u || R.V. 10.14.6[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]May my pitṝs, the low, mean ones, the middle ones and the noble ones, obtain the havis of the highest quality. Let all of them who know this rite (tarpana) become inoffensive, non-hurting and protect me, hearing this appeal from me.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot] : [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]1. [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Please observe the adjective “avṛkā”; it means, in the vedic context, ‘not hurting, inoffensive, safe, etc.’. Here, the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]pitṝs are entreated to become avṛkā which means that, if unpropitiated, they would cause hurt or harm.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]2. [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]The word “vṛkā” means ‘wolf’ in present day Sanskrit but [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] different meanings like jackal, owl, crow, thief, kshatriya, dog, [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot] etc., have been given as meaning by Indian lexicographers. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]It, therefore, appears as though the ṛgvedic people, including the “ṛṣis” who composed this (and other verses in which the word ‘avṛkā’ is used in this sense), lived in fear of wolves, dogs, thieves, owls and what not. Hence, it should be evident that these ṛṣis were mere human beings, not possessing any supernatural abilities, etc., (contrary to the indoctrination of orthodox religion). Consequently the oft-heard refrain that the vedas are “apauruṣeya”, that the ṛṣis, due to their superhuman abilities, captured the ethereal vibrations of the highest mystical and esoteric import etc., etc.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]3. The pitṝs are classified in different ways. One view is that they get ranked in accordance with the merits or “puṇya” earned by performing the various sacrificial rituals while on this earth.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Essentially, the ṛgvedic people, had not come to believe in transmigration of souls or rebirth. Their belief was that the people who die, go to another world and exist there for ever as pitṝs.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The belief in rebirth was a later import into Hinduism. In the present context when Hindus believe in rebirth, the following extract from the book “History of the Dharmasastras, Vol IV” by Bharat Ratna, Mahamahopadhyaya, Pandurang Vaman Kane, on the topic of śrāddha(which will apply also to [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]tarpa[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṇ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]a)[/FONT][FONT=&quot]seems appropriate:-[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“A firm believer in the doctrine of karma, punarjanma (re-incarnation) and karma-vipaka (explained above) may find it difficult to reconcile that doctrine with the belief that by offering balls of rice to his three deceased paternal ancestors a man brings gratification to the souls of the latter. According to the [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]doctrine of punarjanma (as very clearly and succinctly put in Br. Up IV. 4.4 and Bhagavad-gita 2.22) the spirit leaving one body enters into another and a new one. But the doctrine of offering balls of rice to three ancestors requires that the spirits of the three ancestors even after the lapse of 50 or 100 years are still capable of enjoying in an ethereal body the flavour or essence of the rice balls wafted by the wind. Further, Yaj. I. 269 (which is the same as Mark. 29. 38, Matsya-[/FONT] [FONT=&quot]purāṇa 19.11-12, Agni[/FONT] [FONT=&quot]purāṇa 163. 41-42) provides that the grand- [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]fathers (i. e. pitrs) being themselves gratified (by the offerings of food in śrāddha) bestow on men (their descendants) long life, progeny, wealth, learning, heaven, mokṣa (final beatitude), all happiness and kingdom. In the Matsya-purāṇa (chap 19 verse a) a question is asked by the sages how food which a brahmana (invited at a sraddha) eats or which is offered into [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]fire is enjoyed by departed spirits that might have assumed (after death) good or evil forms of bodies. The answer given (verses 3-9) is that fathers, grand-fathers and great-grand- fathers are identified with Vasus, Rudras and Ādityas [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]respectively according to Vedic passages, that the name and gotra (mentioned at the time of śrāddha), the mantras uttered and faith carry to the pitṝs the offerings made, that if one's[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]father has become a god (by his good deeds) the food offered in śrāddha becomes nectar and follows him in his state of godhood, if he has become a daitya (an asura) then (the food) reaches him in the form of various enjoyments, if he has become a beast then it becomes grass for him and if he has become a snake the sraddha food waits on him as wind (serpents are supposed to subsist on wind) and so on. Verses 5-9 of the Matsya, chap, 19 are quoted as from Markandeyapurāṇa by the śrāddha-kalpalata p. 5. viśvarūpa on Yaj. I 265 (p. 171 of Tri. ed.) also raises the same objection and gives several replies. One is that this is a matter entirely based on śāstra and so when śāstra says that pitrs are gratified and the performer gets desired objects no objection should be raised. Another reply is that the gods Vasus and others that have access everywhere have the power to gratify pitrs wherever they may be situated. He does not call the questioners( nāstika) as some other and later [/FONT][FONT=&quot]writers do. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The śrāddhakalpalatā of Nandapandita (about 1600 A. D.) enters upon an elaborate reply to these persons (whom he dubs atheists) that aver that the performance of sraddhas for departed fathers and the rest, who according to the particular actions of each go to heaven or hell or to other forms of exist[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ence serves no purpose. He asks: why is śrāddha useless? Is it because there is no prescriptive text laying down an obligation to perform it or is it because śrāddha produces no consequences or is it that it is not proved that pitṝs and the rest are gratified by śrāddha? To the first he replies that there are such passages as 'therefore a wise man must perform śrāddha with all his [/FONT][FONT=&quot]efforts’ that lay down the obligation; nor is the 2nd objection proper, since Yaj. I 269 does declare the rewards ( of śrāddha ) viz. long life etc. Nor is the third alternative acceptable. In the śrāddha rites it is not that the mere ancestors named Devadatta and the like are the recipients and that they are denoted [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]by the words pitr, pitāmaha and prapitāmaha, but that those words denote them, as accompanied by the superintending deities viz. Vasus, Rudras and Adityas. Just as by the words Devadatta and the like what is denoted is not merely the bodies ( so named ) nor merely the souls, but what is denoted by the words is individual souls as particularised by the bodies; in the same way the words pitṝ and the like denote Devadatta and others together with the superintending deities (viz. Vasus, Rudras and Ādityas ). Therefore, the superintending deities viz, the Vasus and the rest, being gratified by the food and drink offered by the sons and the rest, gratify those also viz. Devadatta and the rest and endow the performers (of sraddha ) with such rewards as male progeny and the rest. Just as a woman expecting to be a mother becomes gratified by partaking of the food and drink for which she has a longing in pregnancy and which is given to her by another person for the sustenance [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]of the child in the womb, she satiates also the child in her womb and endows those that offer her the food and drink for which she has longings by bestowing on them some reward in return. Thus the pitrs denoted by the words father, grand-father and great-grand-father are the deities Vasus, Rudras and [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Ādityas, and not merely (human beings called ) Devadatta and the rest.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Hence these deities of śrāddha become the recipients (of gifts) in the śrāddha[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]rite, are gratified by the śrāddha and gratify in their turn the ancestors of human beings. The śrāddha-kalpalatā then quotes 18 verses from the mārkaṇḍeya purāṇa many of which are found in chap. 28 (verses 3 ff) of the printed text. It is said that just as a calf finds its own mother from among many cows that are scattered about, so the mantras repeated in śrāddha carry the food to the[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The explanation offered by the śrāddhakalpalatā relying on passages of the mārkaṇḍeya purāṇa is not satisfactory and is rather far-fetched. The mārkaṇḍeya and the Matsya appear to agree with the doctrine of vedānta that immediately on leaving one body the soul has recourse to another body, either as a god or a man or a beast or a snake &c . The hypothesis propounded is that the food and drink offered in śrāddhas becomes transformed into various substances for the use of the ancestors (Matsya 141. 74-75). But the great difficulty in accepting this explanation is that the ancestors might die at different places, while śrāddha may very often be performed at one place far [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]away from those places. It is difficult to believe that the grass growing in one place where the ancestor has been transformed into a beast as a result of his[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]evil actions is the same that might have been produced from the substances offered in śrāddha at a place hundreds of miles away. Further, if one or all the three ancestors have been transformed into beasts or the like how can they recognise their offspring- and bestow on them long life, wealth &c ? [/FONT]

(emphasis mine)

... to be continued

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[FONT=&quot]If the Vasus, Rudras and Ādityas bestow these, it is better to say so directly and affirm that pitṝs cannot bestow any thing on their progeny. It appears very probable that the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]worship of ancestors by means of śrāddhas was a very ancient [/FONT][FONT=&quot]institution and that the doctrines of punarjanma and karmavipaka were comparatively later ones[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and that Hinduism being all-embracing retained the institution of śrāddhas while adopting also the doctrine of metempsychosis. The institution of śrāddha is from one point of view an excellent one. It provides an occasion for remembrance of one's ancestors and relatives that were dear and near when living. The Āryasamāja objects to the institution of śrāddha and interprets pitṝs in the Řgveda as meaning living men in the Vānaprastha stage. [/FONT]
It may be noted that the texts support both views. The Śat. Br. expressly says that food is offered to the father of the sacrificer in the words 'this is for thee.' Visnu Dh. S. 75. 4 "He whose father is dead may put down a pinda for his father [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]&c. On the other hand Manu III. 384 states that fathers are spoken of as Vasus, grandfathers as Rudras &c and Yaj. I. 269 provides that Vasus, Rudras and Ādityas are the pitṝs and the devatas of śrāddha. These latter are to be explained as con-taining an injunction to contemplate upon the pitrs as Vasus,[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Rudras &c. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]As stated below (p. 347) with regard to the Rgvedic passages, it was on account of the supposed power of pitṝs to benefit or harm the living that the cult of the dead became a prominent feature in primitive societies[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]. Offerings and ceremonies which may have in most ancient times been prompted in part at least by the desire to placate the ancestors are continued as tokens of pure affection and remembrance. Various beliefs about pitrs are mentioned in post-Vedic Literature. The Baud Dh S II 8 14 summarizes a brāhmaṇa text stating that pitṝs 'move' about in the form of birds. The Auśanasa-smŗti and Devala [/FONT][FONT=&quot]quoted by the Kalpataru say the same thing. In the V[/FONT] [FONT=&quot]āyu purā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṇ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]a[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - it is stated that at the time of śrāddha the ancestors enter the brahmanas (invited ) after assuming an aerial form and that when the best of brahmanas are honoured with clothes, foods, gifts, eatables, liquids, cows, horses and villages, pitṝs become pleased. Manu Dh 189 and the Auśanasa-smŗti also support this notion that pitṝs enter the invited brahmanas. The Matsyapurāṇa (18. 5-7) enjoins: pindas should be offered to the departed for twelve days after death, since they serve him as food on his journey and give him great satisfaction. Therefore, the soul leaving the dead body is not taken to the abode of the departed for twelve days (after death), the departed spirit hovers near his house, his sons, his wife for twelve days. Therefore for ten days after death milk ( and water ) should be placed (hung up ) in space for ten nights for reducing all torments (or troubles of the departed ) and for the removal of the fatigue of the journey (that the departed spirit has to make ). The Visnudharmasutra 76 ( 20. 34-36 ) provides "the departed spirit enjoys in the world of pitṝs the food offered in śrāddha with the utterance of the word 'svadha'; whether the departed is in the state of a god or in the place of torments ( Hell ) or in the form of a lower animal or a human being, the śrāddha food offered by his relatives reaches him; when śrāddha is performed, the performer and the departed soul both certainly secure vigour ( or prosperity )." [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot] (emphasis mine)[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]It will be observed that according to Dr. Kane, the tenets of vedānta, postulate that the departed soul takes a new birth immediately. I feel it is, therefore, necessary for all the people who swear by advaita vedānta to re-examine their position and decide whether the performance of rituals for satisfying the [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]pitṝs is not in contradiction to the doctrine of vedanta, or, whether vedānta itself has contradicted the vedas.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The next mantra is the second* of three ṛks recited while giving the oblation (sesamum and water) to the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]father;[/FONT]

*I posted the first mantra in the post # 2 above pl.

ऋषिः - यमः वैवस्वतः । छन्दः - त्रिष्टुप् । दॆवता - अङ्गिरः पित्रथर्वभृगुसोमाः

तेषांवयँसुमतौयज्ञियानामपिभद्रेसौमनसेस्याम॥ ऋ. वॆ. १०.१४.६

ருஷிஃ - யமஃ வைவஸ்வதஃ | சந்தஃ - த்ரிஷ்டுப் | தெவதா - அங்கிரஃ பித்ரதர்வப்ருகுஸோமாஃ

தேஷாம்வயம்ஸுமதௌயஜ்ஞியாநாமபிபத்ரேஸௌமநஸேஸ்யாம[FONT=&quot]|| [/FONT]ரு[FONT=&quot]. [/FONT]வெ[FONT=&quot]. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]0.[/FONT]௧௪[FONT=&quot].[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ṛṣ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]i[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] - yama[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] vaivasvata[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] | chanda[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] - tri[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṣṭ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]up | devat[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - a[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gira[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] pitratharvabh[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gusom[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]a[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]giraso na[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] pitaro navagv[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] atharv[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]o bh[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gava[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] somy[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]sa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]te[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] vayam̐ sumatau yajñiyānāmapi bhadre saumanase syāma || [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. ve. 10.14.6[/FONT][FONT=&quot]
May we receive the blessings of o
[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ur pitṝs - [/FONT][FONT=&quot]navagv[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] aṅgirases, atharvas, and bhṛgus – and its beneficial results, who deserve soma drink, and are worthy of being invited for the sacrificial rite (yajna).[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot] :[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The word “navagvā” is often used in association with aṅgirases. Two other epithets used in conjunction with aṅgirases as [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]pitṝs in relation to yama, [/FONT][FONT=&quot]are daśagvā and virūpa. The last word may mean one with many-coloured, variegated, etc., as also deformed, misshapen, horrible-looking, etc. But the latter set of meanings are of later origin and here we can safely take the virūpa aṅgirases as many-coloured, or of various categories ( a sort of miscellaneous, other than the navagvās & daśagvās).[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]In regard to navagvā and daśagvā, there are many interpretations given by scholars. sāyaṇa gives, in respect of the above ṛk, its meaning as nava + gvā, [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]अभिनव गमनयुक्ताः नूतनवत् प्रीतिजनकाः[/FONT][FONT=&quot], [/FONT][FONT=&quot]i.e., those who come newly and induce fresh happiness (in us). But [/FONT][FONT=&quot]navagvās are mentioned more times and appear the most prominent. sāyaṇa refers to a story of how the aṅgirases performed a very grand yāga in which some of them attained the fruits of the said yāga in nine months while the others took one more month to achieve their aim and thus the two groups came to be called navagvās and daśagvās. In RV 6.22.2 there is reference to seven wise men (vipra) who were “our ancestors” and navagvās. From these and various other circumstances the navagvās seem to be the most important of the aṅgirases and not as described by sāyaṇa.[/FONT]
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With due respect to Shri Sangom's erudition, I thinking try to interpret these texts in a way faithful to their intent is an incredibly difficult task. When we find it difficult to decipher the import of our mundane exchanges in a forum such as this, even after "clarifications" and "re-clarifications", messages of those times which carry spiritual significance and open to different interpretations is no mean task.

But I appreciate Shri Sangom's efforts and am following the thread with interest.
Shri Sravna,

I agree that interpreting the ancient veda is a difficult task. But I am not doing any new thing. There are several commentaries and sayana has followed many of them. His is the "yaajnikee" style, pl. see this.

Of course I do not subscribe to the view that there is anything esoteric at all in the vedas; myth is there, poetic imagination is there and a high level of poetic skill is very evident. I sometimes think that it was this ability to compose in verses which gave the leverage to the composers (rishis) over the rest of the society which the subsequent priesthood capitalized to the fullest extent and inserted the purusha sukta and paved the way for the caste system.
Dear Shri Sangom Sir,

This is a very useful thread. Thank you. I have a request. If it is not very inconvenient will you please give the word by word meaning of the Samskrit words of the rk in Tamil or English? Because vedic Samskrit appears to be quite different from the modern Samskrit, it will help me get an idea of the differences.Thank you
namaste shrI Sangom.

As to tracing the concept of transmigration right in the samhitA portion of the Vedas, I would request you to read this book:

Ch.10: Transmigration traced to the Rg veda
'Atman in Pre-upanishadic Vedic Literature'
by H.G.Narahari
Atman In Pre Upanisadic Vedic Literature : Narahari, H. G : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive

Shri Saidevo,

I have read this book. It is a research or thesis for Ph.D., and comes to the conclusion that some nucleic idea may be traced in rigveda about transmigration. But personally, I would be guided by the opinion of a person like Dr. P.V. Kane compared to whom Shri Narahari's scholarship seems not much to me. So, I hold that the transmigration is a later concept.
Dear Shri Sangom Sir,

This is a very useful thread. Thank you. I have a request. If it is not very inconvenient will you please give the word by word meaning of the Samskrit words of the rk in Tamil or English? Because vedic Samskrit appears to be quite different from the modern Samskrit, it will help me get an idea of the differences.Thank you

Dear Shri Suraju,

I dare not give word-by-word meaning because I do nat have such a commentary by any native commentators. Sayana explains but in sanskrit itself. I have a malayalam commentary which again follows Sayana mostly, but word-by-word meaning is not given. Still, I will try to give whatever is possible.

Thank you,
[FONT=&quot]The third mantra recited for oblation to the vasus (father) is, again, not a ṛk but a yajus, from the vājasaneyi saṃhitā ; in the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]mādhyandina version which I have there is a slight difference – “asmin yajñe svadhayā mādayantu” as now recited, is changed to[/FONT][FONT=&quot]asmin yajñe svadhayā madanto”, but the meaning does not change much.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]आयन्तु नः पितरः सोम्यासोऽग्निष्वात्ताः पथिभिर्देवयानैः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]अस्मिन् यज्ञॆ स्वधया मादयन्तु अधि ब्रुवन्तु तॆ अवन्तु अस्मान् ॥वा. सं. (माध्यन्दिन)१९.५८[/FONT]

ஆயந்து நஃ பிதரஃ ஸோம்யாஸோக்நிஷ்வாத்தாஃ பதிபிர்தேவயாநைஃ |
அஸ்மிந் யஜ்ஞெ ஸ்வதயா மாதயந்து அதி ப்ருவந்து தெ அவந்து அஸ்மாந் ||

வா. ஸம். (மாத்யந்திந)௧௯.௫௮

[FONT=&quot]āyantu na[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] pitara[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] somyāso:'gni[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]vāttā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] pathibhirdevayānai[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]asmin yajñe svadhayā mādayantu* adhi bruvantu te avantu asmān ||vā. sa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. (mādhyandina)19.58[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]May our agni[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]vāttā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] pitṝs, worthy of being offered soma, come through the path of the devas ([/FONT][FONT=&quot]devayāna[/FONT][FONT=&quot]) (and) to this rite (yajña) along with svadhā and gladden us, speak for us and protect us.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]* “mādayantu” means ‘gladden us’; “madanto” means ‘rejoice’, addressed to the pitṝs themselves.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot] :[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“a[/FONT][FONT=&quot]gni[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]vāttā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ”, a[/FONT][FONT=&quot]gni[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṣu + [/FONT][FONT=&quot]āttā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ = eaten by agni, i.e., those who have been cremated (after death), and thus pitṝs in general, seems to have been the sense in which the samhitas used this term. But later, in Mahabharata, etc., the a[/FONT][FONT=&quot]gni[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]vāttā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ are a class of pitṝs who neglected the maintenance of the sacrificial fire. Manu gives an altogether different picture as may be seen from the following extracts of Ch. III thereof:-[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot] (I have included some extra verses relating to Manu’s dicta regarding [/FONT][FONT=&quot]śrāddha also.)[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]187. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above.[/FONT]
188. A Brahmana who has been invited to a (rite) in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha (must act in the same manner).
189. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them (when they walk) like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated.
190. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way breaks (the appointment), becomes guilty (of a crime), and (in his next birth) a hog.
191. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver (of the feast) committed.
192. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.
193. Now learn fully from whom all these (manes derive) their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped.
194. The (various) classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Marici and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha.
195. The Somasads, the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas, the children of Marici, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods.
196. The Barhishads, born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities, Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras,
197. The Somapas those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras.
198. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha.
199. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas, the Anagnidagdhas, the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas, are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone.
200. But know also that there exist in this (world) countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated.
201. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the immovable in due order.
202. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).
203. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which precedes (the Sraddhas), has been declared to be a means of fortifying (the latter).
204. Let him first invite a (Brahmana) in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection.
205. Let him make (the Sraddha) begin and end with (a rite) in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a (rite) in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his progeny.

[FONT=&quot]Sufficient inputs for deciding (or getting confused with) the meaning of the term a[/FONT][FONT=&quot]gni[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]vāttā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ, I think!![/FONT]
Now we come to the mantra recited for giving the first oblation to the rudras (grandfathers). This is also from the vājasaneyi saṃhitā, not from the ṛgveda.

ऊर्जम् वहन्तीरमृतम् घृतम् पयः कीलालं परिस्रुतम् ।
स्वधास्थ तर्पयत मे पितॄन् ॥ वाज. सं. २.३४

ஊர்ஜம் வஹந்தீரம்ருதம் க்ருதம் பயஃ கீலாலம் பரிஸ்ருதம் |
ஸ்வதாஸ்த தர்பயத மே பித்ரூந் || வாஜ. ஸம். ௨.௩௪

ūrjam vahantīramṛtam ghṛtam payaḥ kīlālaṃ parisrutam |
svadhāstha tarpayata me pitṝn || vāja. saṃ. 2.34

ऊर्जः - strong, powerful, eminent, vigorous
वह् - to carry, transport, convey
परि - round, around, about, fully, abundantly, richly
646-परिस्रुत् - a kind of intoxicating liquor prepared from herbs; flowing around or over, foaming, fermenting
327- कीलाल - water, a sweet beverage, also a heavenly drink similar to amrita, the food of the gods, (VS)blood, flesh
1304 - स्थ - standing, staying, abiding, being situated in
1320 - स्वधाविन् - containing refreshment, owning svadha

May (this offering of) nectar, ghee, milk (water) (and) kīlālam* and parisrut convey strength, power, vigour, to my pitṝs who are abiding (situated in) svadhā, and satisfy (them).

* The word "kīlālam" has several meanings as shown above. But, in the earliest usages, it reportedly meant only a sweet beverage prepared from herbs, the details of which are probably not known now.
[FONT=&quot]The second mantra for the grandfathers (pitāmahās) :[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]प्रपितामहेभ्यः[/FONT][FONT=&quot]स्वधाविभ्यः[/FONT][FONT=&quot]स्वधा[/FONT][FONT=&quot]नमः[/FONT][FONT=&quot]। वाज. सं. १९.३६[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ப்ரபிதாமஹேப்யஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ஸ்வதாவிப்யஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ஸ்வதா[/FONT][FONT=&quot]நமஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]| வாஜ. ஸம். ௧௯.௩௬[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]pitṛbhyaḥ svadhāvibhyaḥ svadhā namaḥ |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]pitāmahebhya[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] svadhāvibhya[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] svadhā nama[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]prapitāmahebhya[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] svadhāvibhya[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] svadhā nama[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] | vāja. sa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. 19.36[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]This originally is from the vājasaneyi saṃhitā; but there the word “svadhāyibhyaḥ” is used in the place of “svadhāvibhya:”, the latter being found in the āpastamba śrauta sūtra. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]This is what is adopted now for the tarpaṇa mantra[/FONT][FONT=&quot].[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]pitṛbhyaḥ = to the pitṛs[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]svadhāvin (svadhāyin) = containing refreshment (owning the svadhā)[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]svadhāvibhyaḥ = owning the svadhā[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]svadhā namaḥ = prostration, svadhā[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]pitāmahebhyaḥ = to the grandfathers[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]prapitāmahebhyaḥ =to the great grandfathers[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Prostrations unto the fathers who own (are abiding in) svadhā, svadhā;[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Prostrations unto the grandfathers who own (are abiding in) svadhā, svadhā;[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Prostrations unto the great grandfathers who own (are abiding in) svadhā, svadhā.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot] : [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Here the last "svadhā" is a mandatory utterance of the name of svadhā which alone will convey (transport) the offerings to the pitṝs according to the smṛtis.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The third mantra for the tarpa[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ṇ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]a for pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]mah[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]s is as under:[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]यॆ चॆह पितरो येच नॆह याँश्च विद्म याँ उ च न प्रविद्म ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]अग्ने तान् वेत्थ यदि ते जातवेदस्तयाँ प्रत्तँ ँ स्वधया मदन्तु ॥ आप. गृ. ८.२१.३[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]யெ சேஹ பிதரோ யேச நேஹ யாம்ஸ்ச வித்ம யாம் உ ச ந ப்ரவித்ம [/FONT][FONT=&quot]|[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]அக்னே தான் வேத்த யதி தே ஜாதவேதஸ்தயா ப்ரத்த[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]ம் ஸ்வதயா மதந்து [/FONT][FONT=&quot]|| ஆப. கிருஹ். ௮.௨௧.௩[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ye ceha pitaro yeca neha y[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]m̐śca vidma y[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]m̐ u ca na pravidma |[/FONT][FONT=&quot]
agne tān vettha yadi te jātavedastayā prattam̐ m̐ svadhayā madantu || āpa. g
[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. 8.21.3[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]This is [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gveda with slight change, adapted into the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]pastamba g[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]hyas[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tra. In both the the [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gveda and v[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]jasaneyi samhit[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] versions, the second line is different as shown below :[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]त्वं वॆत्थयति तॆ जातवॆदस्स्वधाभिर्यज्ञं सुकृतं जुषस्व । ऋ. वॆ. १०.१५.१३[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]த்வம் வேத்தயதி தெ ஜாதவெதஸ்ஸ்வதாபிர்யக்ஞம் ஸுக்ருதம் ஜுஷஸ்வ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] | ரு. வே. ௧0.௧௫.௧௩[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]tva[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] vetthayati te j[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tavedassv[/FONT][FONT=&quot]a[/FONT][FONT=&quot]dh[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]bhiryajña[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] suk[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]ta[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] ju[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]asva | [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. ve. 10.15.13[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot][The [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṛṣ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]i[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] chanda: & devatā for this mantra are śa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]kha[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] yāmāyana[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] tri[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṣṭ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]up and pitara[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ḥ respectively.[/FONT][FONT=&quot](ऋषिः, छन्द:, देवता - शङ्खः यामायनः, त्रिष्टुप् , पितरः)][/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]त्वं वॆत्थयति तॆ जातवॆदँ स्वधाभिर्यज्ञँ सुकृतम् जुषस्व । वाज. सं. १९.६७[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]த்வம் வேத்தயதி தெ ஜாதவெதம் ஸ்வதாபிர்யக்ஞம் ஸுக்ருதம் ஜுஷஸ்வ [/FONT][FONT=&quot]| வாஜ. ஸம். ௧௯.௬௭[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]tva[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] vetthayati te j[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tavedam̐ svadh[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]bhiryajñam̐ suk[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]tam ju[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]asva | v[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ja. sa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. 19.67[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]I feel this difference (whether intentional or because of error made by scribes when writing the palm leaf manuscripts) makes a significant change in the "import of this mantra" as explained below:[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. ve. and v[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ja. sa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. versions say to agni, j[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]taveda[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot], "you know (them - our pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]s); you, alongwith svadh[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] be propitiated with this yajña".[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]I do not have a copy of the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]pastamba [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ś[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rauta s[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tra to verify[/FONT][FONT=&quot]. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]But the tarpa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]amantra as we recite it today, (I have referred to both a 1999 book by R.S. Vadhyar & Sons, Palghat and an 1899 grantha lipi book published by one prabh[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]kara mudr[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]k[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]ara [/FONT][FONT=&quot]śā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]l[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] of cind[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]dri[/FONT][FONT=&quot]śā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]kh[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] nagara (?) and find the same words in both) seems to say "O agni ! if you know (them - our pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]s), you, alongwith svadh[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] be propitiated with this yajña[/FONT][FONT=&quot]". [/FONT][FONT=&quot]This happens because of the change of "vetthayati te" to "vettha yadi te". We have a few Sanskrit scholars among our members and I request them to say if my doubt is valid and throw further light on this.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]So much for the accuracy of transmission/adaptation etc., of vedic verses. The complete mantra as we recite it now means:-[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Those pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]s who are (present) here, those who are not, those whom we know because of their nearness to us in time and those whom we don't know due to the efflux of time, all the pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]s if known to you O agni ! you be propitiated.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot](ஏ அக்னியே உனக்கு என் பித்ருக்களைத் தெரியுமானால் ஜாதவேதஸ் ஆன நீ ஸ்வதாவுடன் வந்து த்ருப்தியடையவும். ) [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The original verse, as appearing in the v[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]jasaneyisa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]hit[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gveda [/FONT][FONT=&quot]give a different meaning which is more acceptable, I feel. They say, [/FONT][FONT=&quot]"[/FONT][FONT=&quot]O, j[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]taveda ! you know them all; please partake of these offerings with satisfaction in this properly conducted yajña." [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The three [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]ks given below constitute the mantras for the (three) offerings (tarpa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a) for the prapitāmaha or great grandfathers. These are continuous [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]ks and form part of a sūkta in praise of viśvedevas[/FONT][FONT=&quot].[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]"viśvedevas" [/FONT][FONT=&quot]is a special category among the [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gvedic deities. Unlike agni, indra, rudra, vi[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṣṇ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]u etc., it is not possible to fix their identity or the exact import of that term. It will take a separate post and, may be, I shall attempt it in future sometime. For the present let us be satisfied with the fact that our scriptures state that the pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]s can come - in forms invisible to human eyes, of course - only if they are accompanied by the three vi[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ś[/FONT][FONT=&quot]vedevas called pur[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rava, [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rdraka and sa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]jñaka.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]In [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gveda the word pur[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ru[/FONT][FONT=&quot] means far and wide. pur[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rava[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] means crying much or loudly. There is also the famous king pur[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ravas. Which of these is the inspiration for naming one of the vi[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ś[/FONT][FONT=&quot]vedevas in this way is not clear.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rdraka means, wet, moist, born under the constellation of [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rdr[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]([/FONT]திருவாதிரை[FONT=&quot])[/FONT][FONT=&quot], [/FONT][FONT=&quot]the name of a particular king in vi[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ṣṇ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]upur[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a, and, ginger in its undried state (according to [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]yurveda). May be that is the reason that raw ginger[/FONT][FONT=&quot] (இஞ்சி) [/FONT][FONT=&quot]is considered an essential requirement for any [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ś[/FONT][FONT=&quot]r[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ddha cooking![/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]"sa[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]jñaka" is a word which does not seem to have any meaning; the closest one can say is "one with a name", that is all.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]That apart, the verses under consideration appear to me as some of the most appealing verses of the [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gveda, and can very well be part of one's daily prayers; these can certainly be adopted as the motto by environmentalists, the green peace foundation, etc., as well.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ऋषिः - गॊतमः राहूगणः । छन्दः - गायत्री । देवता - विश्वॆदेवाः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]मधु वाता ऋतायतॆ मधुक्षरन्ति सिन्धवः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]माध्वीः नः सन्तु ओषधीः ॥ ऋ. वे. १.९०.६[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ருஷிஃ [/FONT][FONT=&quot]- கோதமஃ ராஹூகணஃ | சந்தஃ - காயத்ரீ | தேவதா - விச்வேதேவாஃ |[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]மது வாதா ருதாயதெ மதுக்ஷரந்தி ஸிந்தவஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]மாத்வீஃ நஃ ஸந்து ஓஷதீஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] || ரு. வே. ௧.௯0.௬[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ṛṣ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]i[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] - gotama[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] r[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]h[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ga[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] | chanda[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] - g[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]yatr[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ī[/FONT][FONT=&quot] | devat[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - vi[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ś[/FONT][FONT=&quot]vedev[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]madhu vātā [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]tāyate madhuk[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]aranti sindhava[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]mādhvī[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] na[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] santu o[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]adhī[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] || [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. ve. 1.90.6[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]मधु = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]sweet, delicious, charming, delightful (in R.V., T.S.) [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ऋताय = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]to wish for sacrifice ([/FONT][FONT=&quot]सायण)[/FONT][FONT=&quot], to wish for speech[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ऋतय = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]to observe the sacred law, be regular or proper[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]वाता = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]the winds[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]क्षर् = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]to flow, to stream[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]माध्वीः = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]sweet (R.V.)[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]ऒषधीः = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]herbs, plants[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]May the winds flow sweet according to the sacred law and be regular; may the rivers flow with sweet waters; may the herbs and plants become sweet (tasteful, promoting health) to us.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ऋषिः - गॊतमः राहूगणः । छन्दः - गायत्री । देवता - विश्वॆदेवाः ।[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]मधु नक्तं उतॊषसो मधुमत् पार्थिवँरजः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]मधु द्यौरस्तु नः पिता ॥ ऋ. वे. १.९०.७[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ருஷிஃ [/FONT][FONT=&quot]- கோதமஃ ராஹூகணஃ | சந்தஃ - காயத்ரீ | தேவதா - விச்வேதேவாஃ |[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]மது நக்தம் உதொஷஸோ மதுமத் பார்திவம்ரஜஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]மது த்யௌரஸ்து நஃ பிதா[/FONT][FONT=&quot] || ரு. வே. ௧.௯0.௭[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ṛṣ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]i[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] - gotama[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] r[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]h[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ū[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ga[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] | chanda[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] - g[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]yatr[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ī[/FONT][FONT=&quot] | devat[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - vi[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ś[/FONT][FONT=&quot]vedev[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]madhu nakta[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] uto[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]aso madhumat pārthivam̐raja[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT][FONT=&quot]
madhu dyaurastu na
[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot] pitā || [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]. ve. 1.90.7[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]तर्पण मन्त्र [/FONT][FONT=&quot]book shows [/FONT][FONT=&quot]उषसि [/FONT][FONT=&quot]instead of [/FONT][FONT=&quot]उषसॊ [/FONT][FONT=&quot]as seen in the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]ऋग्वेद संहिता.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]नक्तः = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]night/s[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]उत = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]and[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]उषस् = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]mornings[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]मधुमत् =[/FONT][FONT=&quot]sweet, honeyed, pleasant, agreeable[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]पार्थिव = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]earthly, terrestrial[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]रजः = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]dust, sand[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]द्यौ = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]sky[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]पित् = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]in [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]gveda this means juice, drink, nourishment, food, but the usage of pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot] indicates that the reference is to pit[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot], father[/FONT][FONT=&quot].[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Make the night(s) sweet (providing good sleep) and the mornings sweet (bringing good days); may the dust of the earth (soil) be sweet (productive, rich); may the sky be sweet (favourable, by giving abundant rains - according to s[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ā[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ya[/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT][FONT=&quot]a) to us as father.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ऋषिः - गॊतमः राहूगणः । छन्दः - गायत्री । देवता - विश्वॆदेवाः ।[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]मधुमान्नो वनस्पतिः मधुमाँ अस्तु सूर्यः ।[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]माध्वीर्गावो भवन्तु नः ॥ ऋ. वे. १.९०.८[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]ருஷிஃ [/FONT][FONT=&quot]- [/FONT][FONT=&quot]கோ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]தமஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ராஹூகணஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] | [/FONT][FONT=&quot]சந்தஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - [/FONT][FONT=&quot]காயத்ரீ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] | [/FONT][FONT=&quot]தேவதா[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - [/FONT][FONT=&quot]விச்வேதேவாஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]மதுமாந்நோ வநஸ்பதிஃ மதுமாக்ம் அஸ்து ஸூர்யஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]மாத்வீர்காவோ பவந்து நஃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot] || ரு. வே. ௧.௯0.௮[/FONT]

ṛṣ[FONT=&quot]i[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - gotama[/FONT][FONT=&quot] r[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot]h[/FONT]ū[FONT=&quot]ga[/FONT][FONT=&quot]a[/FONT][FONT=&quot] | chanda[/FONT][FONT=&quot] - g[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot]yatr[/FONT]ī[FONT=&quot] | devat[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot] - vi[/FONT]ś[FONT=&quot]vedev[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot] |[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]madhum[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot]nno vanaspati[/FONT][FONT=&quot] madhum[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot]m̐ astu s[/FONT]ū[FONT=&quot]rya[/FONT][FONT=&quot] |[/FONT][FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot]dhv[/FONT]ī[FONT=&quot]rg[/FONT]ā[FONT=&quot]vo bhavantu na[/FONT][FONT=&quot] || [/FONT][FONT=&quot]. ve. 1.90.8[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]मधुमान् (मधुमत्) = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]containing, possessing, sweetness : pleasant : agreeable [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]वनस्पतिः = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]forest trees[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]अस्तु = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]let it be, be it so[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]माध्वीः = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]sweet[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]गावः ([/FONT][FONT=&quot]plural nominative of गो) = cows[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]भवन्तु = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]become[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]नः = [/FONT][FONT=&quot]to us[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]May the trees of the jungle be sweet (useful) to us; may the sun be sweet to us; may the cows become sweet to us.[/FONT]
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