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Sanskrit lovers' corner

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Dear All,
As proposed in the thread Iyer's corner, this thread has been started for the members of this forum to share their knowledge of Sanskrit. Let me begin with neeti zataka. Each sloka has 6 steps. It is designed for those who know the devanagari lipi but totally lacking in Sanskrit knowledge. The transliteration scheme followed by Monier Williams is followed here as it avoids the use of diacritical marks.

1 The sloka in Sanskrit in original form is given first.
2 Then it is broken into individual words.
3 Then it is paraphrased.
4 In the fourth step, meaning of individual words are given.
5 In the fifth step, the substance of the verse is given.
6 The last step contains minimal grammar points meant for learners.

Those who know Sanskrit can improve on this and they are invited to share their knowledge.

Now the first zloka of Bhartrhari's NIti zatakam.

1 दिक्कालाद्यनवच्छिन्नानन्तचिन्मात्रमूर्तये।
स्वानुभूत्येकमानाय नमश्शान्ताय तेज्से।।

2 दिक्- काल- आदि- अनवच्छिन्न- अनन्त- चिन्मात्र- मूर्तये- स्वानुभूति- एकमानाय- नमः- शान्ताय- तेजसे।

3 दिक्- काल- आदि- अनवच्छिन्न- अनन्त- चिन्मात्र- मूर्तये- स्वानुभूति- एकमानाय- शान्ताय- तेजसे- नमः।

4 दिक्-directions (east west etc.) काल- time आदि- etc. अनवच्छिन्न- unbound अनन्त-unlimited चिन्मात्र- wisdom (ज्ञानम्) मूर्तये-to the personification स्वानुभूति- personal experience एकमानाय- to the thing known by that only शान्ताय-to the calm तेजसे- to the lustre नमः- salutations.।

5 Salutations to the calm radiance, which is not bound by directions, time, which is the personification of unlimited wisdom and which can be known by personal experience alone.

6 Grammar- murti is the base form. murtaye is the dative form.
mAna is the base form. mAnAya is the dative form.
zAnta is the base form. zAntAya is the dative form.
tejas is the base form. tejase is the dative form.

What is dative? It represents the preposition 'to'. For those who know Tamil, this is நான்காம் வேற்றுமை.

नमः- is always accompanied by a noun in dative form also called fourth case. compare the following.

शिवाय- नमः, गणेशाय-नमः, कृष्णाय- नमः-which respectively mean salutation to Ziva, Salutation to Ganeza, salutation to KRSna.
 
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OP
OP
vikrama
I am sorry. In the very first post, I have committed a blunder. The sixth paragraph should read as follows. I have corrected it. However for those who saw it earlier, here is the correct version.

6 Grammar- murti is the base form. murtaye is the dative form.

mAna is the base form. mAnAya is the dative form.
zAnta is the base form. zAntAya is the dative form.
tejas is the base form. tejase is the dative form.
What is dative? It represents the preposition 'to'. For those who know Tamil, this is நான்காம் வேற்றுமை.

नमः- is always accompanied by a noun in dative form also called fourth case. compare the following.
 
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Dear All,
As proposed in the thread Iyer's corner, this thread has been started for the members of this forum to share their knowledge of Sanskrit. Let me begin with neeti zataka. Each sloka has 6 steps. It is designed for those who know the devanagari lipi but totally lacking in Sanskrit knowledge. The transliteration scheme followed by Monier Williams is followed here as it avoids the use of diacritical marks.

1 The sloka in Sanskrit in original form is given first.
2 Then it is broken into individual words.
3 Then it is paraphrased.
4 In the fourth step, meaning of individual words are given.
5 In the fifth step, the substance of the verse is given.
6 The last step contains minimal grammar points meant for learners.

Those who know Sanskrit can improve on this and they are invited to share their knowledge.

Now the first zloka of Bhartrhari's NIti zatakam.

1 दिक्कालाद्यनवच्छिन्नानन्तचिन्मात्रमूर्तये।
स्वानुभूत्येकमानाय नमश्शान्ताय तेज्से।।

2 दिक्- काल- आदि- अनवच्छिन्न- अनन्त- चिन्मात्र- मूर्तये- स्वानुभूति- एकमानाय- नमः- शान्ताय- तेजसे।

3 दिक्- काल- आदि- अनवच्छिन्न- अनन्त- चिन्मात्र- मूर्तये- स्वानुभूति- एकमानाय- शान्ताय- तेजसे- नमः।

4 दिक्-directions (east west etc.) काल- time आदि- etc. अनवच्छिन्न- unbound अनन्त-unlimited चिन्मात्र- wisdom (ज्ञानम्) मूर्तये-to the personification स्वानुभूति- personal experience एकमानाय- to the thing known by that only शान्ताय-to the calm तेजसे- to the lustre नमः- salutations.।

5 Salutations to the calm radiance, which is not bound by directions, time, which is the personification of unlimited wisdom and which can be known by personal experience alone.

6 Grammar- murti is the base form. murtaye is the dative form.
mAna is the base form. mAnAya is the ablative form.
zAnta is the base form. zAntAya is the ablative form.
tejas is the base form. tejase is the ablative form.

What is ablative? It represents the preposition 'to'. For those who know Tamil, this is நான்காம் வேற்றுமை.

नमः- is always accompanied by a noun in ablative form also called fourth case. compare the following.

शिवाय- नमः, गणेशाय-नमः, कृष्णाय- नमः-which respectively mean salutation to Ziva, Salutation to Ganeza, salutation to KRSna.

Sir,

Is it अनवच्छिन्न or अनविच्छिन्न? A doubt please.
 
OP
OP
vikrama
अव,वि- both these prefixes mean the same thing in this word.

अनवच्छिन्न- splits into अन् +अवच्छिन्न- and means- not cut off, not separated, not excluded, not bound.

अनविच्छिन्न- splits into अन्+ अ+ विच्छिन्न. With a double negative, it means cut off, separated, excluded, bound.

I consider that, as an attribute of God, the former agrees well.
 
OP
OP
vikrama
Apart from the prayer song which we saw previously, the book consists of 100 verses divided into 10 decads. Here is the verse 1 of the first decad, titled mUrkha paddhati. (ways of the fool)

1 बोद्धारोमत्सरग्रस्ताः प्रभवः स्मयदूषिताः। अबोधोपहताश्चान्ये जीर्णमङ्गे सुभाषितम्।।

2 बोद्धारः मत्सरग्रस्ताः प्रभवः स्मय दूषिताः। अबोध उपहताः च अन्ये जीर्णम् अङ्गे सुभाषितम्।।

3 बोद्धारः मत्सरग्रस्ताः प्रभवः स्मयदूषिताः। अन्ये च अबोध उपहताः । सुभाषितम् अङ्गे जीर्णम् ।।

4 बोद्धारः- those who know मत्सरग्रस्ताः- grasped by jealousy. प्रभवः- the powerful people स्मयदूषिताः spoilt by conceit ।अन्ये- च- and the others अबोध- उपहताः- afflicted by ignorance।- सुभाषितम्- this good saying अङ्गे- within myself जीर्णम्- gets digested।।

5 The author says that his advice in the book is for his own consumption, not for others. Because, the intelligent are grasped by jealousy and they won’t like the advice given by others. The powerful people are too proud to listen to anyone advising him. Others, afflicted by ignorance can not understand these.

6 grammar:- मत्सरग्रस्ताः- is a compound word (समासः). It consists of two words मत्सर- jealousy + ग्रस्ताः- grasped. They are joined by a preposition विभक्तिचिह्नः. The preposition disappears in the compound.

So also स्मयदूषिताः-is a compound word consisting of two words स्मय- conceit+ दूषिताः- spoilt, where the connecting part has disappeared.
 
OP
OP
vikrama
Verse-2

1 अज्ञस्सुखमाराध्यः सुखतरमाराध्यते विशेषज्ञः। ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति।।

2 अज्ञः- सुखम्- आराध्यः- सुखतरम्- आराध्यते- विशेषज्ञः-ज्ञानलव- दुर्विदग्धं- ब्रह्मा- अपि- नरं- न- रञ्जयति।।

3 अज्ञः- सुखम्- आराध्यः, विशेषज्ञः- सुखतरम्- आराध्यते, ज्ञानलव- दुर्विदग्धं- नर- ब्रह्मा- अपि- न- रञ्जयति।।

4 अज्ञः- the ignorant सुखम्- easily आराध्यः- propitiated (taught), विशेषज्ञः-those who know well, सुखतरम्- more easily आराध्यते- can be propitiated ज्ञानलव- दुर्विदग्धं- नरं- the man, silly with a little knowledge - ब्रह्मा- अपि- even Brahma न- रञ्जयति- does not illuminate।।

5 The ignorant can be easily taught. The learned can be more easily taught. Bu the silly man with a little knowledge can not be taught even by Brahma.

6 ब्रह्मा+ अपि= ब्रह्मापि. The last vowel in the first member is आ. The first letter in the second member is अ. Joined together they become आ

अ+अbecomes आ
अ+आbecomes आ
आ+अbecomes आ
आ+आbecomes आ
 
OP
OP
vikrama
Verse-3
1 प्रसह्य मणिमुद्धरेन्मकरवक्त्र दंष्ट्रान्तरात्
समुद्रमपि सन्तरेत् प्रचलतदूर्मिमालाकुलम्।
भुजङ्गमपि कोपितं शिरसि पुष्पवद्धारयेत्
न तु प्रतिनिविष्ट मूर्खजनचित्तमाराधयेत्।।

2 प्रसह्य- मणिम्- उद्धरेत्- मकर- वक्त्र- दंष्ट्रा- अन्तरात्- समुद्रम्- अपि- सन्तरेत्- प्रचलत्- ऊर्मि- माला- आकुलम्।
भुजङ्गम्- अपि- कोपितं- शिरसि- पुष्पवत्- धारयेत्- न- तु- प्रतिनिविष्ट- मूर्खजन- चित्तम्- आराधयेत्।।

3 मकर- वक्त्र- दंष्ट्रा- अन्तरात्- प्रसह्य- मणिम्- उद्धरेत्, प्रचलत्- ऊर्मि- माला- आकुलम्- समुद्रम्- अपि- सन्तरेत्।
कोपितं- भुजङ्गम्- अपि- शिरसि- पुष्पवत्- धारयेत्, प्रतिनिविष्ट- मूर्खजन- चित्तम्- न- तु- आराधयेत्।।

4 मकर-crocodile वक्त्र-mouth दंष्ट्रा-tooth अन्तरात्- from inside प्रसह्य-forcibly मणिम्- precious stone उद्धरेत्- one can take out, प्रचलत्-moving ऊर्मि- waves माला-string आकुलम्-filled समुद्रम्-sea अपि-even सन्तरेत्- one can cross over।कोपितं-angry भुजङ्गम्- अपि- even the serpent शिरसि-on the head पुष्पवत्- like a flower धारयेत्-one can wear, प्रतिनिविष्ट-obstinate मूर्खजन- चित्तम्- fool’s mind न- तु- आराधयेत्- one can never propitiate।।

5 One can forcibly take out the precious jewel held by the crocodile in its teeth. One can cross the sea filled with waves. One can even wear a serpent on one’s head like a flower. But one can never propitiate the mind of the fool.

6 There is no word for the subject. The verbs are in III person singular. So we assume the subject as ‘one’. Hiding the subject is common in Sanskrit. It should be inferred from the verb.
शिरसि-is the locative case (7[SUP]th[/SUP] case) form of शिरस्-
शिरस्= head
शिरसि= on the head
 
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