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Sangeetha Shaasthram

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In Sanaathana Dharma everything was mathematical and scientific. Nothing was
without any reason.
The Story goes like this:
One sage by name Bharatha Muni wanted to have Dharshan of Lord Shiva, for
which he was doing penance. Satisfied with his penance, Lord Shiva showed
himself to Bharatha Muni in a dancing pose. When Lord Shiva dances due to
happiness, it is Shiva Naatyam and when Lord Shiva dances in fury it is Rudhra
On seeing the dance of Lord Shiva, Bharatha Muni wrote Naatya Shaasthra.
There is one verse from Naatya Shaasthra :
Yahto Hastha, Thatho Drushtihi; Yatho Drishtir Thatho Manaha; Yatho Manas
Thatho Bhaavaha; Yatho Bhaavo Thatho Rasaha.
Where the hand goes, there the eye should go; Where the eye goes, there the mind
should go; Where the mind goes, accordingly facial structure should change; And
only according to the facial structure the fruition comes.
Sangeetha Shaasthra is part of Naatya Shasthra.
Again the basic Swaras were determined with the frequency of the living things.
Sa – Sadjam – Peacock – denotes Moolaadhaara Chakra. (Centre point between
urine and stool outlets).
Ri – Rishabham – Bull – denotes Swaadhishtaana Chakra. (the base of vertebral
Ga – Gaandhaaram – Goat – denotes Manipooraka Chakra. (navel point).
Ma – Madhyamam – Pelicon – denotes Anaahatha Chakra. (Solar Plexus).
Pa – Panchamam – Nightingale – denotes Vishudhi Chakra. (throat).
Dha – Dhaivatham – Horse – denotes Aagnyaa Chakra. (the point between the eye
Ni – Nishaadham – Elephant – denotes Sahasraara. (Crown of the head – pineal
Sadjam and Panchamam were called as Prakruthi Swaraas (without parts); Other 5
Sawaraas were called Vikruthi Swaraas (with parts).
Rishabham has 3 parts – Shudhdha Rishabham, Chathushrithi Rishabham and
Shatshrithi Rishbham.
Gaandhaaram has 3 parts – Shudhdha Gaandhaaram, SaadhaaraNa Gaandhaaram,
Anthara Ghaandhaaram.
Madhyamam has 2 parts – Shudhdha Madhyamam, and Prathi Madhyamam.
Dhaivatham has 3 parts – Shudhdha Dhaivatham, Chathushrithi Dhaivatham and
Shatshrithi Dhaivatham.
NIshaadham has 3 parts – Shudhdha Nishaadham, Kaisiki Nishaadham and
Kaakali Nishaadham.
The basic rule is that a SampoorNa Raaga should have all 7 Swaraas in both
AarohaNam and AvarohaNam.
Hence taking Madhyamam as centre point, for Shudha Madhyamam – taking the
rest six swaraas, we have a combination of (6x6) 36 Raagaas; and for Prathi
Madhyamam – taking the rest six swaraas, we have a combination of (6x6) 36
Raagaas. Hence we have a total of 72 SampoorNa SampoorNa Ragaas (which are
called Karthaa Raagas) Mother Raaagas.
One sage by name Venkamahi (in 17​
th Century) improved the sequence and called
these 72 Raagaas as Melakartha Raagaas.
The basic Swaraas were posited in the following sequence:
1. Sadjam.
2. Shudhdha Rishabham.
3. Chathushruthi Rishabham – Shudhdha Gaandhaaram.
4. Shatshruthi Rishabham – SaadhaaraNa Gandhaaram.
5. Anthara Gaandhaaram.
6. Shudhdha Madhyamam.
7. Prathi Madhdhyamam.
8. Panchamam.
9. Shudhdha Dhaivatham.
10. Chathushruthi Dhaivatham – Shudhdha Nishaadham.
11. Shatshruthi Dhaivatham – Kaisiki Nishaadham.
12. Kaakali Nishaadham.
Our Great Scientist Sir C.V.Raman (who won the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his
discovery in Physics) has given a paper about this also.
He says from the base frequency, the swaraas should be calculated as given below:
If the base frequency is taken as S, the Swaraas will be as given below:
1. Sadjam = S x 2

2. Shudhdha Rishabham = S x 2^1/12
3. Chathushruthi Rishabham – Shudhdha Gaandhaaram = S x 2^2/12

4. Shatshruthi Rishabham – SaadhaaraNa Gandhaaram = S x 2^3/12​

5. Anthara Gaandhaaram = S x 2^4/12​

6. Shudhdha Madhyamam = S x 2^5/12​

7. Prathi Madhdhyamam = S x 2^6/12​

8. Panchamam = S x 2^7/12​

9. Shudhdha Dhaivatham = S x 2^8/12​

10. Chathushruthi Dhaivatham – Shudhdha Nishaadham = S x 2^9/12​

11. Shatshruthi Dhaivatham – Kaisiki Nishaadham = S x 2^10/12​

12. Kaakali Nishaadham = S x 2^11/12​

This is for one Sthaayi. We normally have​
Pa, Dha, Ni / Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha,
NI /
Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma. The underline shows Lower Sthaayi / Normal Sthaayi /
Higher Sthaayi. This shows that the next Sadjam will be Sx2. This was the
frequency setting required.
There are different types of raagaas with reference to the no. and alignment of
swaraas. 7 swaraas – SampoorNam, 6 swaraas – Shaadavam, 5 swaraas –
Audavam. Therefore we can by permutation and combination find several lakhs
of Raagaas in the following manner (AarohaNam- AvarohaNam) : SampoorNa-
SampoorNa; SampoorNa-Shaadava, SampoorNa-Audava, Shaadava-
SampoorNa, Audava-SampoorNa, Shaadava-Shaadava, Shaadava-Audava,
Audava-Shaadava and Audava-Audava. The basic principle here is the Swaraas
should be in the normal sequence. There are other Raagaas also where the
Swaraa sequence is missing – These Raagaas are called Vakra Raagaas.
The Raaga Revathi is a classic example of an Audava-Vakra Raaga –
Sa,Ri,Ma,Pa,Ni, (AarohaNam) and Sa, Ni,Pa,Ma,Ri,Ni,Ri (AvarohaNam). Here
it is seen that in the AvarohaNam Ni of lower Sthaayi is used and then back to
Ri of normal Sthaayi is used. Due to the fact that the mind goes in to deep
meditative level on hearing Revathi Raaga (Janya Raaga from 8
th MeLakartha
Raaga Hanumathodi), this Raaga is used to recite all Vedic Hymns, except for
Sri Rudhra Prashna for reciting which the 22
nd MeLakarthaa Ragaa

Kharaharapriyaa (beloved of great Shiva) is used.
If you are really eager to enjoy Carnatic Music, visit the site (www.[URL="http://www.sangeethapriya.org"]sangeethapriya.org) [/URL]and you can download music to your hearts content and enjoy ad-infinitum. Carnatic Music is a great soother of all sorrows and it also gives the bliss.
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Our Great Scientist Sir C.V.Raman (who won the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his
discovery in Physics) has given a paper about this also.​

Dear suba42
Can you kindly give the reference to the paper by C.V.Raman so that I can read the paper completely.​
suba42 , i am attending the aaradhana this time and thrilled like a small kid :) , reading and understanding all the lyrics of the great saint thyagaraja :) , my hubby plays flute and violin and i bet i renew my energy by listening to carnatic music.

Wish i knew tamil and telgu fluently :( , i translate all the compositions but alas!!! no feel in english :).
Dear Sir,

Though I read the article in the Science Age magazine about this around 20 years ago, I shall try to get the same and produce it to you.
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