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India's Contribution to the World of Science

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The text I am studying besides sanskrit comes with lots of info for the reader and since I need to study that too so I thought will type what I read here when i get time... to reinforce my memory at the same time provide some info for all.Info taken from Patralayadvaaraa Samskritam.

Plant Cell

Parashara had given a detail account of plant cells in his work.His findings(made without the help of a microscope) were even superior to those of Robert Hook in 1665 A.D.

Parashara's description are:

Outer wall
Inner wall
Sap with colouring matter
That which can be seen with the naked eye.

Our ancestors knew how liquids are sucked from the soil by the plants.
The word for tree in Sanskrit is Paadapah(that which takes water from the legs/roots)

This phenomenon of plants taking water is called suction force.In 1894 two scientist Jolly and Dixon found out this phenomenon.
Thus our ancestors found out so many scientific principles although they had neither the apparatus nor any laboratory.
They were able to do this by their intellectual genius alone.
Dear Renuka,

There is a old sangam tamil poetry in which the poet says "ninru thalara valar thengu thaalunda neerai thalaiyale thaan tharuthalaal" meaning the coconut tree gives the water that it takes at its bottom (thaal) through the tender coconut(thalai).

Bodhayana Sutra

The theorem now known as Pythagoras theorem was known to Bodhayana and Katyayana 1000 years before Pythagoras.
This theorem was adopted in the construction of altars for Yagnas.
Quardrangular,equilateral,bilateral,quadrilateral altars were used during Yagnas.

The Value of π

Aryabhata had discovered the value of π much earlier than anyone.The value he gave for was π =3.1416.


In the field of Trigonometry Indians used 'jya' and 'kotijya' which later one became to be known as cosine in European languages.
Aryabhata first composed 'Jya kostaka'.
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Great :llama:

If you visit Akshardham in Delhi you will learn a lot more contribution to science from India.
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Shankaramishra had propounded fundamental principles of Magnetism.He tells about how and why a metal pin is attracted towards a magnet.

Bhoja(1050AD) had ordered that ships should not have metals at the bottom which he thought that the magnetic part that exists in the rocks of the sea may draw ships towards them and cause ship wreck.
Compass which were used by sea voyager Hindus were called Matsyayantra.
It is believed that rockets were discovered in China but Chinese used them only for fun. Tipu Sultan, a ruler of Mysore kingdom, was the first person who used the rockets for a war. His army had 27 brigades, called khusnoos and each brigade had a company of rocket men, called jourks. His army successfully used the metal-cylinder rockets against strong British East India Company during Anglo-Mysore wars. After fighting three wars with Bristish (1766-1769, 1780-1784, 1789-1792), Tipu Sultan had faced resounding defeat in the fourth war in 1799. He was killed during this war. After his death, British captured the more than 700 rockets and subsystems of 900 rockets and had been taken back to London by William Congreve for so called “reverse engineering” today.

According to Stephen Oliver Fought and John F. Guilmartin, Jr. in Encyclopedia Britannica (2008) : "Hyder Ali (father of Tipu Sultan), prince of Mysore, developed war rockets with an important change: the use of metal cylinders to contain the combustion powder. Although the hammered soft iron he used was crude, the bursting strength of the container of black powder was much higher than the earlier paper construction. Thus a greater internal pressure was possible, with a resultant greater thrust of the propulsive jet. The rocket body was lashed with leather thongs to a long bamboo stick. Range was perhaps up to three-quarters of a mile (more than a kilometre). Although individually these rockets were not accurate, dispersion error became less important when large numbers were fired rapidly in mass attacks. They were particularly effective against cavalry and were hurled into the air, after lighting, or skimmed along the hard dry ground. Hyder Ali's son, Tippu Sultan, continued to develop and expand the use of rocket weapons, reportedly increasing the number of rocket troops from 1,200 to a corps of 5,000. In battles at Seringapatam in 1792 and 1799 these rockets were used with considerable effect against the British."

Please check the following site
History of Indian Science And Technologyhttp://parrothanging.blogspot.com/2005/02/indian-contributions-to-science-my.html

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From the URL you provided Prasad Sir: "Katyayana says that the rope stretched along the length of the diagonal of a rectangle makes an area which the vertical and horizontal sides makes together. In fact the theorem was attributed to paythagoras about 500 years after his death." WOW.... proud to be Indian... :)
From the URL you provided Prasad Sir: "Katyayana says that the rope stretched along the length of the diagonal of a rectangle makes an area which the vertical and horizontal sides makes together. In fact the theorem was attributed to paythagoras about 500 years after his death." WOW.... proud to be Indian... :)

Please give credit to Renuka, she started the thread and quoted this theorem. But will accept your compliments with gratitude.
actually samskritham shud have been taught alongside english for us while growing up.some known gurus tried to spread this knowledge,but indians by nature globally are a subdued temperamentally and not an aggressive marketing kind.of course in the field of business indians and indian origin people are making rapid strides.hope we can learn from past to make present a valuable time.

many texts were taken to united kingdom,as that was the norm and primary objective of colonisation and preach the gospel of christ.i personally think,as ishta devatha christians have done wonderful progress materially,spiritually and continue to share knowledge with sharp business acumen.
Watch this:


will post more shortly.
You know all this maybe true, but we were very good at hiding all these discoveries under a pillow. Or perhaps they were couched in difficult-to-decipher Sanskrit verses / riddles.

If only we were as good in spreading the knowledge to a larger section of the population and applying these principles to build machines and medicines, then we would not have to be re-educated by the British. Of course the intervening 1000 years of Muslim invasion also caused collective amnesia.

Bodhayana Sutra

The theorem now known as Pythagoras theorem was known to Bodhayana and Katyayana 1000 years before Pythagoras.
This theorem was adopted in the construction of altars for Yagnas.
Quardrangular,equilateral,bilateral,quadrilateral altars were used during Yagnas.

The Value of π

Aryabhata had discovered the value of π much earlier than anyone.The value he gave for was π =3.1416.


In the field of Trigonometry Indians used 'jya' and 'kotijya' which later one became to be known as cosine in European languages.
Aryabhata first composed 'Jya kostaka'.
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All said and done, I am sorry that India is not home for inventing things like stapler, and so many items of daily use. Nobody, a scientist or a technocrat, has thought of a common man's needs.
Robert R. C. Zaehner (1913-1974) British historian of religion.

In the family of religions, Hinduism is the wise old all-knowing mother. Its sacred boo ks, the Vedas, claim, 'Truth is one, but sages call it by different names. 'If only Islam, and all the rest of the monotheistic 'book' religions, had learned that lesson, all the horror of history's religious wars could have been avoided. Which other religion has its God say, as Krishna does in the Bhagavad Gita, 'All paths lead to me.'

If only the Church had the sense to allow so many different and seemingly contradictory approaches to God, how much saner its history would have been!
It was the sublime ancient tolerance of Hinduism that he often stressed, that was the true proof of the wisdom and mature dignity of the Hindu tradition.

All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident."


Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur ( Bihar ), Aryabhatt's intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam." He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, "This value has been given by the Hindus." And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics. Read more after the break...


Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise " Siddhant Shiromani " he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the " Surya Siddhant " he makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction." Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton . He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medievalIndia . His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.


As the founder of " Vaisheshik Darshan "- one of six principal philosophies of India - Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat . He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, "Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules." His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton . Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other. The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook , has said, "Compared to the scientists of Europe , Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field."


He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh . His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like " Ras Ratnakar ," "Rashrudaya" and "Rasendramangal" are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. As the author of medical books like "Arogyamanjari" and "Yogasar," he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda . Nagarjuna's milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists of today.

Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the " Charak Samhita ", is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagoneses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe , Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. In the " Charak Samhita " he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants. He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body. He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to Ayurvedal. He forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.


A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sudhrut details the first ever surgery procedures in " Sushrut Samhita ," a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe , Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the " Sushrut Samhita ," he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, Cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse's hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the " Sushrut Samhita ," and fibers of bark. In the " Sushrut Samhita ," he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.

Renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti ( Ujjain ). Varahamihir's book "panchsiddhant" holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the " Bruhad Samhita " and " Bruhad Jatak ," he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.


The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali , the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh . He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali 's 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna. The Science of Yoga has gained popularity because of its scientific approach and benefits. Yoga also holds the honored place as one of six philosophies in the Indian philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-discipline, happiness and self-realization.


Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ordent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the " Yantra Sarvasva " which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further reflected through techniques described by him:
1.) Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force.
2.) Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force.
3.) Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane.
4.) Visual Secrets: The technique to see what's happening inside another plane.
Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology.


Celebrated as the founder of Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapil is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardam and Devhuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers - incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology. Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as the Father of Cosmology.

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In addition to science, India's contribution to Management.

It's risky to generalize about India, a subcontinent of 1.2 billion people, just as it's simplistic to stereotype the Western executive or the Chinese business leader. Motorola's Sanjay [FONT=inherit !important][FONT=inherit !important]Jha[/FONT][/FONT] or Berkshire Hathaway's Ajit [FONT=inherit !important][FONT=inherit !important]Jain[/FONT][/FONT], one of those tipped as Warren Buffett's successor, succeed due to talent and drive, not because they're Indian

India May Be the Ideal CEO Training Ground - TIME
The Beautiful Tree


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Thank you very much and it gives plenty of information.

A piece of information : I read today in a Tamil Daily i.e. in Dina Malar, an information
has appeared. A Panchaloka Statue of Mother Tamil, it appears, is being installed
in Simbang Leema (Tamil Programme School) according to the news. The Statue
has been made ready at Swamimalai near Kumbakonam. The paper says that the
Statue weighs around 30 kg and of 1 1/2 feet height.
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