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A Short Introduction To Chloroquine: The Anti-Malarial Drug Being Tested As Cure For Covid-19

vembuv

Active member
A Short Introduction To Chloroquine: The Anti-Malarial Drug Being Tested As Cure For Covid-19

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Representative image (Health.mil)
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How exactly does chloroquine help the body fight against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19?


Contrary to popular perception that it was a tweet of US President Donald Trump that started the hype over chloroquine, it was SpaceX founder Elon Musk who had already tweeted three days prior to Trump that the anti-malarial drug ‘maybe worth considering’ for Covid-19’.

He was cautious but considered the use of the drug as ‘better than nothing’.

 

Janaki Jambunathan

Well-known member
I had taken Tab.Resochin (Chloroquine) 20years ago!

Not for Malaria or Amoebic liver abscess. Corona was unknown then! So asked Jambu why he gave me Resochin - Since chloroquin is in limelight now!

His explanation - You had an autoimmune condition . and needed immunosuppressive agents - mainly steroids. I went up to 12 tabs of prednisolone (60mg) You started developing (side) effects of steroid -.(Cushingoid state) Chloroquine was used in those days in Rheumatoid arthritis Lupus erythamatosis and lepra reactions etc - This was used for the immunosuppressive action!

So a combination of Wysolone Resochin and Endaxon tried Which gave you complete remission after about 2 years of treatment!

Now in Corona trial anti viral property ( to Covid19) looks encouraging with no immunosuppression !

This is a true case history - I am the patient and Jambu is the doctor - Strange coincidence Jambu was lecturer in Infectious disease Madurai Medical College. and incharge of IDH Madurai
 

prasad1

Well-known member
Side Effects
Blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headache, and diarrhea may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: bleaching of hair color, hair loss, mental/mood changes (such as confusion, personality changes, unusual thoughts/behavior, depression), hearing changes (such as ringing in the ears, hearing loss), darkening of skin/tissue inside the mouth, worsening of skin conditions (such as dermatitis, psoriasis), signs of serious infection (such as high fever, severe chills, persistent sore throat), unusual tiredness, swelling legs/ankles, shortness of breath, pale lips/nails/skin, signs of liver disease (such as severe stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine), easy bruising/bleeding, muscle weakness, unwanted/uncontrolled movements (including tongue and face twitching).

This medication may rarely cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Tell your doctor right away if you develop symptoms of low blood sugar, such as sudden sweating, shaking, hunger, blurred vision, dizziness, or tingling hands/feet. If you have diabetes, be sure to check your blood sugars regularly. Your doctor may need to adjust your diabetes medication.

Get medical help right away if you have any very serious side effects, including: severe dizziness, fainting, fast/slow/irregular heartbeat, seizures.

This medication may cause serious eye/vision problems. The risk for these side effects is increased with long-term use of this medication (over weeks to years) and with taking this medication in high doses. Get medical help right away if you have any symptoms of serious eye problems, including: severe vision changes (such as light flashes/streaks, difficulty reading, complete blindness).

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
 

vembuv

Active member
Something is better than nothing.

However, scientists who deal in facts and evidence-based medicine, are concerned about the sweeping statements the president has been making regarding the use of chloroquine or the closely related hydroxychloroquine, both antimalarial drugs, as cures for COVID-19 and are examining the facts.

BTW,sSide effects can happen with almost any medicine.

How to Deal With Side Effects of Medicine

Prescription drugs heal us when we're sick, ease our pain when we ache, and prevent or control long-term conditions. But sometimes, even when they do the job they're supposed to, they have unwelcome side effects.

Don't let that make you automatically rule out a medication, especially if it's an important part of managing a health condition. But you shouldn't accept unpleasant reactions without question, either.


Know What to Expect

Side effects can happen with almost any medicine, says Jim Owen, doctor of pharmacy and vice president of practice and science affairs at the American Pharmacists Association. They're common with everything from birth control pills to cancer-fighting chemotherapy drugs.

Many prescription drugs, for example, cause stomach problems like nausea, diarrhea, or constipation because they pass through your digestive system.

Read more at:
 
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Janaki Jambunathan

Well-known member
Touch wood ! I am in total remission till date and presumed to be cured after 5 years of remission by standard medical practices! But heavy.dose of steroids had triggered my Diabetes Hypertension and consequent effects on eye for which lifelong treatment required! The other drugs were stopped after 3 months. Every month blood was tested to monitor liver and kidney functions

I didn't experience much of side effects to Resochin and Endaxon except occasional nausea vomiting blurring of vision - very mild didn't warrant withdrawal of the drugs . Steroid was for about 2 years gradually reducing the dose and withdrawn finally.

Cloud had a silver lining! To over come the depression during 2 years steroid therapy - took to my hobby - painting seriously - specially Tanjore painting !

A few in the link

 

vembuv

Active member
Touch wood ! I am in total remission till date and presumed to be cured after 5 years of remission by standard medical practices! But heavy.dose of steroids had triggered my Diabetes Hypertension and consequent effects on eye for which lifelong treatment required! The other drugs were stopped after 3 months. Every month blood was tested to monitor liver and kidney functions

I didn't experience much of side effects to Resochin and Endaxon except occasional nausea vomiting blurring of vision - very mild didn't warrant withdrawal of the drugs . Steroid was for about 2 years gradually reducing the dose and withdrawn finally.

Cloud had a silver lining! To over come the depression during 2 years steroid therapy - took to my hobby - painting seriously - specially Tanjore painting !

A few in the link

Madam,

I really admire your will power. And equally about your memory power. Happened to be a better half of a Doctor, you seems to be thorough with details of generic name of drugs, etc.

Last but not the least the excellent work on Tanjore paintings which are unique and have high traditional value. Only very rare practice this.

Keep it up Madam.

May God bless you and members of your family. :)
 

Janaki Jambunathan

Well-known member
Corona Scare and scarcity of ventilators is real . I was on ventilator in 1987.I remember nothing since I was in Coma for 5 days. I will have to build that story after I hear from Jambu's recollection of those days when I was unconscious & my experience on ventilator will follow .
 

Janaki Jambunathan

Well-known member
My case history I was in my mid thirties and my son's were in 8th and 5th standard I am asthmatic not on drugs on daily basis . But seasonal episodes were under control with Tab Deriphylline . I distinctly remember it was Tamil month கார்த்திகை - as opened my eyes recovered my conscious at 6 pm on the day of பரணி கார்த்திகை தீபம் after 2 days of ventilator assisted breathing!

I sprayed some pesticides with a Flit hand pump in my kitchen garden and that triggered my Asthma was not controlled by oral medication slipped into ' Status Asthmaticus ' Admitted in Vadamalayan Nursing Home - ( Varamalayan. Multi speciality hospitals Now) - Era of No electronic gadgets - No pulseoxy meters - blood gas analyers - BP Temp.recorded by manometer and thermometer) - started on drips and oxygen - No improvement and soon slips into coma . I don't remember any further - Now follow the story retold as Jambus recollection - getting into cyanosis - hypoxemia hypercapnia - all by clinical assement with out blood gas analyser - emergency tracheostomy done - no improvement - finally on to ventilater - (no digital equipment - mechanically operated ) lots of problem faced by doctor while intubating through the tracheostomy and finally after 1 hours struggle it was in place and the on to the road to recovery!

I have the tracheostomy scar - and it doesn't bother me - Even Elizabeth Taylor had it!

And till May 2019 I never had to be admitted for my lung problem was in Apollo Perungudi last year - no ventilator - and now my records show I suffer from COPD (Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease) There no change in line of treatment but only in the diagnostic jargan - House wife then - Home maker now!
 
now my records show I suffer from COPD (Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease) There no change in line of treatment but only in the diagnostic jargan - House wife then - Home maker now!
Yes true with different subsection in medical specialisation, the name of the diseases(/or diagnosis) too are multiple with many multi speciality hospitals to treat but the suffering is same for a human.
 

vembuv

Active member
I have the tracheostomy scar - and it doesn't bother me - Even Elizabeth Taylor had it!
While most like to hide such scars...some feel and treat them as a precious jewel to remind their painful experiences and challenges they happened to undergo.

You proved you are brave and courageous.

And God is great. :)
 

Janaki Jambunathan

Well-known member
My Tributes to doctors Stethoscoped or wired to gadgets

My 1987 story is about Stethoscoped doctors with possibility of human errors

2019 is about wired to gadgets doctor. With them human errors almost nil - wth efforts of wired gadget!

Human error now will be medical negligence!

Yes no human errors - Human touch ?

I have another personal story of disease with morbidity rather than mortality to follow

An eye of an hawk - heart of lion - fingers of a lady is the attributes of great doctor

I did spot thosd qualities in all those doctor who helped me out of those fatal conditions in 1987 and 2000!
 

drsundaram

Well-known member
A Short Introduction To Chloroquine: The Anti-Malarial Drug Being Tested As Cure For Covid-19

View attachment 9353

Representative image (Health.mil)
---------------------------------------------------------------

How exactly does chloroquine help the body fight against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19?


Contrary to popular perception that it was a tweet of US President Donald Trump that started the hype over chloroquine, it was SpaceX founder Elon Musk who had already tweeted three days prior to Trump that the anti-malarial drug ‘maybe worth considering’ for Covid-19’.

He was cautious but considered the use of the drug as ‘better than nothing’.

i think this cholorquime any antimalara is not cleared aor stood the test
yet to be validated. in fact i read somehwere that a testing staff, a Dr after taking this cloroquine for thi corona had died.either due to it or by default
 

vembuv

Active member
i think this cholorquime any antimalara is not cleared aor stood the test
yet to be validated. in fact i read somehwere that a testing staff, a Dr after taking this cloroquine for thi corona had died.either due to it or by default
New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?

Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, the spread of this virus is ongoing. SARS-CoV-2 is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterised by pulmonary infection in humans. The efforts of international health authorities have since focused on rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients as well as the search for therapies able to counter the most severe effects of the disease. In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Preliminary trials of chloroquine repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19 in China have been encouraging, leading to several new trials. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms of chloroquine interference with the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.




New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?

5. Conclusion

Chloroquine has been shown to be capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of several coronaviruses. Recent publications support the hypothesis that chloroquine can improve the clinical outcome of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. The multiple molecular mechanisms by which chloroquine can achieve such results remain to be further explored. Since SARS-CoV-2 was found a few days ago to utilise the same cell surface receptor ACE2 (expressed in lung, heart, kidney and intestine) as SARS-CoV-1 [85,86] (Table 1), it may be hypothesised that chloroquine also interferes with ACE2 receptor glycosylation thus preventing SARS-CoV-2 binding to target cells. Wang and Cheng reported that SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV upregulate the expression of ACE2 in lung tissue, a process that could accelerate their replication and spread [85]. Although the binding of SARS-CoV to sialic acids has not been reported so far (it is expected that Betacoronavirus adaptation to humans involves progressive loss of hemagglutinin-esterase lectin activity), if SARS-CoV-2 like other coronaviruses targets sialic acids on some cell subtypes, this interaction will be affected by chloroquine treatment [87,88]. Today, preliminary data indicate that chloroquine interferes with SARS-CoV-2 attempts to acidify the lysosomes and presumably inhibits cathepsins, which require a low pH for optimal cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein [89], a prerequisite to the formation of the autophagosome [49]. Obviously, it can be hypothesised that SARS-CoV-2 molecular crosstalk with its target cell can be altered by chloroquine through inhibition of kinases such as MAPK. Chloroquine could also interfere with proteolytic processing of the M protein and alter virion assembly and budding (Fig. 1). Finally, in COVID-19 disease this drug could act indirectly through reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or by activating anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cells.

Read more at:
 

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