Glad to be back. Thanks for allowing me the time.
Hello Raghy, good to see you back. Hope your assignment went well.
So, andhanan respect can not be claimed by birth.
I agree, because, that term, originally, had nothing to do with any caste. However, in due course of time things changed. We can tell for sure that by the time of மணிமேகலை, written by கூலவாணிகன் சீத்தலை சாத்தனார், the word அந்தணர் had become a synonym for Brahmin. Please read the section on மணிமேகலை from my post #7.
Also, Thondaradippodi Azhvar in verse #43 of திருமாலை, uses the phrase சாதி அந்தணர் to mean Brahmin. I have already posted details about this verse in post #10, and many other posts, from the எங்கே
Sri Vaishnavam thread.
While I agree with you that the term anthaNan did not mean Brahmin originally, but the word and the intended respect became synonymous with Brahmin a very long time ago. This, I think, did not happen just by accident or because Brahmins in general exhibited the superior qualities of an andhaNan.
I do not recall Krishna teaching anything in Chapter 1.
I have a lot of respect for Srimat BG. I think it contains many useful lessons for how to lead one's life. But it is also a flawed text in some ways, just like the great Thirukkural, which is inspiring in many ways, is also flawed in the way the role of women is described. So, don't think I am condemning BG outright.
With this disclaimer, here is what I have on BG and caste/varna. Please read the original text and you will see that what I am saying is quite faithful.
In Shloka 41 of Chapter 1, Arjuna declares that Varna Sankraha, i.e. mixing of Varna, will result if the women of the clan become blemished.
अधर्म अभिभवात् कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुल स्त्रियः ।
स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्ण सङ्क्ररः ॥
(adarma abhi bhavAt krushna, pradushyanti kula sthriya:
strIshu dushtAsu vAshNeya, jAyate varNa sangkra: )
If mixing of varnas will result from the rape of women, why then varna is not birth based?
In the next Shloka, Arjuna says that what follows from this mixing of Varna, is the destruction of of Jati and Kula virtue that have existed from beginningless time. Then, the dead fathers will lose their pinda etc..
सङ्करो नरकाय एव कुल घ्नानां कुलस्य च ।
पतान्ति पितरः हि एषाम् लुप्त पिण्ड उदक क्रियाः ॥
(sankaro narakAya eva, kula ghnAnAm kulasya cha
patanti pitara: hi eShAm lupta piNda udaka kriyA: )
If varna is not birth based and only based on gunas, what is the connection between destroying kula and pitru shrardham?
In shloka #43, Arjuna says mixing of Varnas will destroy jAti darma and kula darma.
दोषैः एतै कुल घ्नानां वर्ण सङ्कर कारकैः ।
उद् साद्यन्ते जाति दर्माः कुल दर्माः च शाश्वताः ॥
(doShai: etai kula ghnAnAm varNa sangkArakai:
ud sAntyante jAti darmA: kula darmA: cha shAshvatA: )
If varna is not birth based why should its mixing result in the destruction if jAti darma and kula darma?
Finally, in Shloka #44
Arjuna cites the authority of tradition for what he had stated.
उत्सन्न कुल धर्माणाम् मनुष्याणाम् जनार्दन ।
नरके नियतम् वासः भवति इति अनुशुश्रुम ॥
(utsanna kula darmANAm manushyANAm janArdana
narake nityam vAso bhavati iti anu shushruma )
Arjuna says he is only stating what he had heard from elders and that these are not just his delusions.
Now, I know what you are going to say. These were Arjuna's questions from a disturbed mind. These are not the words of Sri Krishna. But this objection raises two questions in my mind.
 Since Arjuna cites the authority of elders and tradition in shloka #44, why should this not be taken as the common practice and view at that time?
If Arjuna's words on Varna/Jathi are erroneous, why then Lord Sri Krishna never once disputes Arjuna on this issue anywhere? The Lord speaks of Varna several times in BG, yet, never once does he correct Arjuna on mixing Varna due to women loosing their chastity.
I also fail to recall Krishna connecting varna and birth in chapter 9.
We discussed this earlier in this forum. I am not going to give you interpretations from one scholar or another. I am specifically referring to shlokas 32 and 33 of Chapter 9.
Let me first set the stage. In this portion of the chapter the lord is trying to give confidence to Arjuna that he too can achieve moksham. So to buck up Arjuna lord says even women, vaishya and shudra, who are pApa yOnayaha, can attain moksha. So, kshathriyas and brahmanas, who are of noble birth, need not worry, they can surely get release through surrender to the lord.
Now, I will give you the actual shlokas without any interpretation.
मां हि पार्थ व्यापाश्रित्य येपि स्युः पाप योनयः ।
स्त्रियो वैसयास्तथा शूद्रास्तॅ अपि यानि परं गतिं ॥ 32
(mAm hi pArtha vyAp Asritya yE api syu: pApa yOnaya:
striya: vaishya: tathA shUdra: te api yAnti parAm gatim)
किं पुन ब्राह्मणाः पुण्या भक्ता राजर्षयस्तथा ।
आनित्यं असुखं लॉकं इमं पप्राप्य भजस्व मां ॥ 33
(kim puna: brAhmaNA: puNyA bhaktA rAjarShya tathA
anityam asukham lOkam imam prApya bhajasva mAm)
With the literal meaning of the word yOni being uterus or female reproductive organ, anyone who says the lord was not making a connection between varna and birth in the same way gender is, is the one who is doing some fanciful interpretation.
Finally, over to you....
(I apologize for the length, I am constrained by having to give copious references.)