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  1. #1
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    Reservations in Karnataka

    Some one in some thread here had asked abotu information on the reservations in Karnataka and AP.
    ( i will finfd out later which thread and which posting).

    So I dug up some info through google. Posting for karnatak first then AP and then maybe Kerala etc.

    I found some interesting articles on Reservation in Karnataka.
    One article tracks the history. I have made some sentences in it in bold.

    It says even brahmins are considered backward there due to eceonomic reasons. Is that true? Can anyone from karanataka find out?
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    The saga of quotas in Karnataka

    BY Padmaraj Dandavati DH News Service Bangalore:

    http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/sep132005/state1910142005912.asp
    Tuesday, September 13, 2005

    Former prime minister H D Deve Gowda has stirred up a hornet’s nest by demanding a reduction in reservation to the Kuruba and Idiga communities to four per cent from the existing 15.

    Kurubas are the third most populous community in the State, while Idiga community has several prominent leaders with sound political and economic background.

    His announcement has come after he stripped partyman Siddaramaiah - who belongs to the Kuruba community - of deputy chief ministership. Political pundits are wondering whether the JD (S) supremo has made the statement fearing that he could no longer rely on the support of the Kuruba community.




    Mr Gowda seems to have made a tactical move to woo the other BCs. As many as 101 castes, including Kurubas and Idigas, fall under Backward Classes 2(A) category. A seasoned politician, Mr Gowda knows that his party will lose Kuruba votes because of the Siddaramaiah factor, and Idiga votes because of former chief minister S Bangarappa and MP R L Jalappa, both of whom belong to Idiga community. His intention is to garner the support of the people of the other 99 castes in the category.

    The controversy surrounding reservation is not new.

    In 1921, for the first time, the Miller committee fixed reservation, but there were only two groups: Brahmins and non-Brahmins. The then Diwan Sir M Visveswaraiah had opposed the concept of reservation itself.

    In 1951, 18 castes were classified as backward classes; it rose to 165 in 1959.

    In 1963, the Supreme Court stated that reservation should be based on the community’s economic and social status. Due to this system, between 1963 and 1975, even Brahmins, Lingayats and Vokkaligas came under the category of backward classes.

    Later, Devaraj Urs formed a backward classes commission under L G Havanur, who in his report dropped Lingayats from the backward classes list. As a result of the commission’s report, Kuruba and Agasa community got a reservation of 10 per cent and Muslims and Idigas got 18 per cent.

    During the tenure of Ramakrishna Hegde, the T Venkataswamy commission came into being and recommended dropping Vokkaligas from the backward list. However, Deve Gowda opposed it tooth and nail and protests ensued.

    In 1986, the Hegde government classified different communities into A, B, C, D and E categories and Vokkaligas continued in the backward fold.

    In 1992, Veerappa Moily formed the O Chinnappa Reddy commission, but the recommendations were not implemented due to political compulsions.

    In 1995, during Deve Gowda’s tenure as chief minister, a cabinet sub-committee led by M P Prakash classified communities under Group 1, 2 A, 2 B, 3 A and 3 B. The government issued an order fixing reservation, and it holds good even today.

    SC/STs were given a reservation of 18 per cent, while the backward classes garnered a total of 32 per cent. Castes such as Kuruba, Idiga, Agasa and Vishwakarma were brought under 2 A category and given a reservation of 15 per cent.

    Now, Mr Deve Gowda is seeking the review of the reservation fixed 10 years ago. He is of the view that Kurubas and Idigas have garnered 80 per cent of the government jobs reserved for 2 A category. According to 1991 census, Kurubas and Idigas form 8.5 per cent of State’s population.

    Only time will tell if Gowda’s strategy to woo other backward classes will succeed.


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  4. #3
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    http://www.educationworldonline.net/eduworld/article.php?choice=prev_art&article_id=737&issueid =48

    Reservation concordat
    With a 27 percent additional reserved quota (i.e in addition to the existing 22.5 percent quota reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes) for OBCs (other backward castes) in Central government sponsored institutions of higher education (IITs, IIMs, JNU etc) a fait accompli, backward castes champion Union minister for human resource development Arjun Singh has turned his attention to carving out a similar reserved quota for OBCs in private unaided higher education institutes, especially colleges of professional (medicine, engineering, business management etc) education and deemed (i.e private sector) universities. But following the huge controversy generated by Singh’s ex cathedra announcement of quotas in Central government institutions in April, this time around a show of consultations with state governments is being made.
    At a high-level meeting of state education ministers held on October 19 in New Delhi to discuss the proposed Central legislation on additional reservation for OBCs in private unaided colleges, the Karnataka state government represented by higher education minister D.H. Shankarmurthy threw a spanner in the works. While the imperious HRD minister quite clearly wants to enact legislation to make the managements of privately promoted unaided colleges fall in line, the Karnataka government’s stand is that any further reservation in unaided colleges and deemed universities should be negotiated by state governments.
    Moreover at the meeting Shankarmurthy cited the success of the Karnataka state government in doing its bit for OBC students. Seats in all higher education institutions in Karnataka are equally distributed among candidates from various backward castes: scheduled castes (15 percent), scheduled tribes (7.5 percent) and other backward classes (22 percent) further divided into categories 1, 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B in accordance with Government Order No. SWL 251 BCA 94 dated January 31, 1995. An additional 15 percent and 5 percent of institutional capacity is reserved in favour of rural candidates and students from Kannada medium schools with 1 percent of seats also set aside for children of Jammu & Kashmir migrants. In effect the total reservation of seats in all higher education institutions including private unaided colleges in Karnataka aggregates 66.5 percent — far higher than the 49.5 percent (22.5 percent for SC/ ST and 27 percent OBC) reservation legislated by the Central government.
    An explanatory press note dated October 18 issued by the higher education ministry explains that last year the state government successfully negotiated a concordat with the Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges-Karnataka (Comed-K) which is incorporated in the Special Provisions — Karnataka Professional Educational Institutions (Regulation of Admission and Determination of Fee) Act 2006 which provides for 50 percent reservation for SC/ ST/ OBC by way of government quota. "The Supreme Court has given its approval to the provisions of the consensual agreement," states the note. Moreover the other quotas for rural, Kannada medium and Kashmiri migrants have also been accepted by Comed-K.
    Shankarmurthy says that "sensitive matters" like reservations and fees cannot be solved by confrontation. "The Centre should not get into a confrontation with unaided colleges by forcing reservations upon them. In Karnataka, we have successfully negotiated reservation for SC/ ST and OBCs in all colleges. If Karnataka can do it, why not others? I believe rather than confrontation, we should adopt persuasion and negotiation," he says.
    Meanwhile private educationists though surprised by the state government’s stand, are happy with the outcome. "We are pleased to note that the state’s higher education minister is speaking against imposition of reservations upon private unaided colleges. We are quite satisfied with the consensual agreement of last year which includes a discretionary management/NRI quota with no fee ceiling. If the agreement continues in force we will consider doing away with our separate entrance test next year to reduce the burden on students. We are doing our bit for underprivileged students by offering scholarships and fee reductions to financially weak candidates," says Dr. S. Kumar, executive secretary of Comed-K.
    Quite clearly, where there’s a will...
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    The thrust of reservation should be towards poor people, says Poojary

    http://www.hindu.com/2005/09/16/stories/2005091613840300.htm
    The thrust of reservation should be towards poor people, says Poojary
    Friday, Sep 16, 2005
    Special Correspondent
    `The benefits of reservation should reach the poor in every caste' `The benefits of reservation should reach the poor in every caste'

    · Poojary to moot constitutional amendment to increase percentage of reservation to 80 per cent for all categories other than general
    · The 2A category under reservation has 102 castes and 374 sub-castes
    · The 3A category has only three casts, namely Vokkaligas, Kodavas and Balijas
    MANGALORE: Rajya Sabha MP and former President of Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee B. Janardhana Poojary said he will moot a constitutional amendment in the next parliament session to increase the percentage of reservation to 80 per cent for all categories while keeping 20 per cent for the general category.
    Addressing a press conference here on Thursday, Mr. Poojary said there have been political battles over the reservation policy and some political leaders are trying to overlook the constitution and democracy by misguiding the Government. Referring to the letter sent by former Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda to Chief Minister N. Dharam Singh recently, he said Mr. Deve Gowda is seeking to break the existing categories under reservation on caste basis. The thrust of reservation should be towards poor people and there are poor people in every caste.
    Even the Brahmin and Gowd Saraswath Brahmin castes have poor people among them, so the benefits of reservations should include them also, Mr. Poojary said.
    Discussion
    He said Chief Minister N. Dharam Singh had told him that there is no "agenda" before the Cabinet to take up Mr. Gowda's letter for discussion. But the Congress Legislative Party (CLP) should discuss the matter in detail, Mr. Poojary added.
    Terming Mr. Deve Gowda's recommendations on reservation policy as "cheap gimmickry," Mr. Poojary alleged him of using the issue of reservation for gaining political mileage.
    Caste politics
    Mr. Deve Gowda is pretending to be a saviour of the minority castes in the State, but in fact he is indulging in caste politics and trying to take political revenge against other backward caste leaders.
    Stating that the trifurcation of the reservation category 2A would be an unconstitutional move if taken up, Mr. Poojary said that it will further jeopardise the Social Empowerment programme in the Constitution of India.
    Injustice
    He said by making such "superficial" recommendations, Mr. Gowda has done injustice to the Vokkaligas, Backward Castes and Lingayats.
    If somebody tries to move the court seeking review of the reservation policy, the work of the framers of the constitution will be in vain and lakhs of people will lose the benefits that they are getting out of reservation, Mr. Poojary said.
    He said he even feared that Mr. Gowda's observations will start a class war.

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    Bangarappa's formula to end anti-quota agitation

    Special Correspondent http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/31/stories/2006053104800300.htm
    `Quota should be introduced for poor sections among upper castes'

    · Entire country should be brought under Schedule 9 of the Constitution
    · No Government had made a sincere attempt to implement reservation
    · Left parties and Samajwadi Party will party crucial role in forging a third alliance
    GULBARGA: Former Chief Minister and president of the Samajwadi Party S. Bangarappa on Tuesday suggested a formula to end the current anti-reservation agitation. He said the percentage of reservation should be increased and reservation should be introduced for poor sections among the upper castes.
    Addressing a press conference here, Mr. Bangarappa said the Union Government had amended the Constitution to include Tamil Nadu in Schedule 9 of the Constitution to protect the reservation percentage of 67 in that State after the Supreme Court had limited the percentage for reservation in employment and education, for all communities including Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, at 50. He said the same principle should be adopted by the Government for all States by increasing the percentage of reservation to 67. The entire country could be brought under Schedule 9 of the Constitution, he added. A portion of reservation should be provided for the poor among the upper castes and the remaining should be for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and OBCs. Supporting the demand for reservation for OBCs in educational institutions and in employment, Mr. Bangarappa said he was also in favour of the demand for reservation for poor people from upper castes. Referring to the current agitation by medical students against reservation for OBCs in institutes of higher education, he said the protestors should know that the Constitution had provided for reservation for OBCs and no Government had made a sincere attempt to implement this.
    On the current political situation in the country, Mr. Bangarappa said the good performance by Left parties in West Bengal and Kerala had strengthened the hands of political forces trying to forge a third front as an alternative to the Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
    Mr. Bangarappa said the Left parties and the Samajwadi Party would play a crucial role in forging such an alliance.
    Mr. Bangarappa said in the event of Left parties withdrawing support to the United Progressive Alliance, a third front comprising Left parties and like-minded political forces would try to form the government at the Centre. He did not rule out the possibility of parties such as the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) supporting the third front in the event of the fall of the UPA Government.
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    Editorial in Deccan Herald

    http://mailgate.dada.net/soc/soc.culture.indian.karnataka/msg04036.html
    Reservation criteriaEditorialThe Deccan HeraldSunday, March 10, 2002The Karnataka government has done well to lay downspecific criteria of eligibility for those belonging toBackward Classes for reservations in government jobs andeducation. After the Mandal Commission report onreservations for BCs was accepted by the Centralgovernment more than a decade ago, the Supreme Court haddirected that the ''creamy layer'' among these castesshould be identified and steps should be taken to ensurethat the benefits accruing from reservations are notappropriated by the socially and economically advancedsections among the BCs. The Central and state governmentshave therefore been trying to decide what constituted thecreamy layer. The Backward Classes Commission set up bythe Karnataka government has evolved certain criteria andmade recommendations to the government accordingly.Accepting the recommendations, the government hasannounced that those whose families possess more than 10units of agricultural land or more than 20 acres ofplantation crops will not be eligible for reservation.Similarly, candidates whose parents are serving as ClassI and Class II officers in government, private or publicsector undertakings and whose basic salary is above theRs 6000-11000 range are to be excluded from the categoryof beneficiaries. Children of legislators and Members ofParliament who have completed a minimum five-year term inoffice will also not be eligible for reservations. Thegovernment has accepted a cut-off limit of Rs 2 lakhannual income to decide the eligibility for reservations.There is no doubt that social justice will be effectiveand meaningful only when it is aimed at the mostdeserving people. One complaint about the reservationsystem has been that the benefits are cornered to a largeextent by the better-off sections of the eligible classesand the poorer and more deserving persons are at adisadvantage because of unfair internal competition. Onlywhen the full reservation pie is available for the mostsocially and economically backward persons will they beable to make use of the provisions and make realadvances. Economic criteria are not the only measure ofbackwardness but there is the need for a benchmark to goby. It should also be borne in mind that the presentcriteria may not be a correct indicator of economic andsocial advancement after some time and therefore they may require changes from time to time.
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    I pasted the articles too here becos maybe after some time it may be removed from the net by those who published it. Hence.
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    A few quick points:
    It seems BC section is subdivided into many categories
    Creamy layer is being enforced.
    Is it true Brahmins are part of the backward in Karnatak? ( can anyone answer that? )
    People are talking baoutkhikiing the quota percent.

    I am not able to ascertain the exact percentage prevalent now-- Is it 50% or is it 66%. (including rural quota, kashmirr quota etc?)
    --does hari know any info on this?
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    Ellarum ore maathiri whether it is poojari or bangarappa or siddaramiah.

    may be some subsects of brahmanas,who were not high in the trad. hierarchy are classified as backward.

    The kannada hoysala smartha,smartha/madwa desastha,hebbar/mandyam iyengars,shivalli brahmanas of tulu country(near udipi),gouda saraswat brahmanas of coastal karnataka are definitely forward.
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